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Spring 2013 Exam 2 Notes

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Religious Studies
REL 2027
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EXAM 2 NOTESNew Religious Movements in 6th century BCE in India especially SikhismoEarly Vedic Era tribesoMiddle Vedic Era confederaciesoLate Vedic Era great confederacies aka MahajanapadasFrom small agriculture communities to larger estates with more wealthpower They built temples etcExchange of ideas within religion reflect more on traditionVedic tradition becomes philosophicalForest TeachersSeekersoUpanishadic rishis seersKshatriyas probably had less influencepower in early Vedic era which was dominated by Brahmans Brahman sons began to form their own philosophical religious groupsLooking for spiritual guidanceteachersRishis translated the UpanishadsoCarvakinsmaterialist schoolDid not embrace supernatural religious spiritualityAtheistish There was nothing guiding peopleThese views eventually died out they werent prominentSmall significant groupNot popular enough to attract many people to their viewsoAjivikasfatalistsOpposite of Carvakins they believed in predeterminationKarma was setNot popular enoughdied outoGautama BuddhafollowersBuddhismNo way of knowing whether a sect will take hold or not It depends on the patronageIn competition with other small sects yet his group was preeminent oJainsJainismCould have becomes a rival sect to BuddhismIn IndiaNumbers were small but their influence was bigGandhi was influenced by JainismJAINISMoNortheast India 600 BCEoContemporariesVardhamana Mahavira 599527 BCEJainismGautama Buddha 664486 BCEBuddhismBoth are from the warrior casteBoth advocated austerityasceticismBoth established communities in Maghada BiharoMahaviraMost recent succession of 24 Tirthankaras pathmakersBefore him other nonhistorical figures taught it too1st historical Jain figureLeft privileged life at the age of 30 because he was discontent with his life of comfortAbandoned all possessions including clothes Like St FrancisPulled out his hair by the roots Very radicalAttained moksha at age 42Practiced strict ahimsa noninjury nonviolenceGathered followerso2 Branches of Jain Community which are still in place todayRenouncersCelibatenot practicing agriculture get money from donations from laypeopleMonksNunsoVery strict wear masks to not breathe in microorganisms sweep their path before they stepo5 Great Vows abstaining from violence dishonesty theft sexual intercourse personal possessionsoCulminating in sallekhana selfstarvationeventually kill themselvesoAll vows are taken to the ultimate levelEx Theft You abstain from taking anything that has not been given to you to avoid a karmic stainoKarma is the crud that imprisons you in the worldthe goal is to rid yourself of it to become lighter Moksha involves leaving the earthspending eternity suspended in the universeLaypeopleOffers a basis for living life the ultimate reward of mokshaacquiring religioussocial prestige Ex Wealthy give money to templestheir name is known Women can do this tooVows abstaining from eating meat drinking alcohol falsehood stealing violenceoRoot vegetables kill the plant Believe life is in any kind of seed so they avoid foods with lots of seeds toooAlcohol requires microorganisms to fermentoKarma creates meritLaypeople will get a better deal in the next life The goal is to practice as monksnuns but some people arent there yetBuddhists accept meat because of their compassion Jains wont accept meat because they are concerned with their own karmaObserveDistribution of wealth to poormonksnunsFastsPujasritual devotion toward TirthankarasmerchantsAvoid agriculture Universally Jains becameVaisyawealthycaste in Hinduism diamond traveling merchants Their temples are lavishoDivision in Jain communityFirst major patron Mauryan Emperor Chandragupta 321297 BCEAt this time there was a major schism into 2 communitiesSvetambaraswhitecladoNorth IndiaGujaratDigambarasskyclad aka nakedoSouth India primarily But they do travelSIKHISMoNorthWest IndiaoDeveloped in Punjab an area of defense against invasionmilitancyoFounder Guru Nanak 14691539 CE15th16th centuriesMakes Sikhism the youngest major religion in the worldFrom a merchant family in predominately Muslim Punjab during the Mogul dynastyInfluenced by both Hindu bhaktiMuslim Sufism mystic which is in South AsiaSant traditionbhakti tradition poet Kabir was a member Epiphany at age 29Disappeared for 3 days
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