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Final Exam Study Guide

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SOCL 2001
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Chapter 9 Learning ObjectivesThe Myth of RaceDefine race and racism and understand the three beliefs that characterize racismoRacerefers to a group of people who share a set of characteristicstypically but not always physical onesand are said to share a common bloodlineoRacismthe belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traitsoThree key beliefs of racismHumans are divided into distinct bloodlines andor physical types That these bloodlines or physical traits are linked to distinct cultures behaviors personalities and intellectual abilitiesThat certain groups are superior to othersoRacism today is more black vs white but it used to be more white vs not as white such as Europeans from Irish Celtics Swedish etcDescribe the various shifts the concept of whiteness has undergone in America since the late eighteenth centurystoCongress passed the 1 naturalization law conferring citizenship to free white persons in 1790oLed to millions of immigrants coming to America from Europe and most notable the Irish who were trouble makersoImmigration Act of 1924 formalized the exclusive definitions of whiteness by imposing immigration restrictions that limited the amount of immigrants from separate countriesoFavored the eastern and northern Europeans because they were had a better Whiteness The Concept of Race from the Ancients to AllelesExplain how race was used during the Age of Exploration to legitimize imperial conquest and ruleoThey used biblical and scientific explanations to explain why people with different physical appearances were meant to be slaves and that is why they must take their land etcExplain how ethnocentrism was at the core of many nineteenthcentury theories about race such as phrenology and physiognomyoEthnocentrismthe belief that ones own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of ones ownMeaning that one race believes they are the norm and everyone else is different oPhrenology was used by Johann Friedirch BlumenbachPhrenology is the pseudoscience of using differences in head formations to distinguish raceCaucasians had excellent skull qualities so they were considered the norm and every other was compared to them such as in ethnocentrismoPhysiognomy was used by Johann Caspar LavaterPhysiognomy correlated outside appearances to inner virtuesThis form of science considered light skin and small features signified high intellect and worthy characterAgain putting white people as the norm and comparing everything else to itDefine social Darwinism and explain how it may have influenced the development of the eugenics movementoSocial Darwinismthe application of Darwinian ideas to society namely the evolutionary survival of the fittestSocial theorist began to use Darwins ideas to make their own theories such as white people are more evolved than black people and that they were intended to dominate all other racesoEugenicsliterally meaning well born the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generationPseudoscience of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generationLed by Sir Francis Galton took the idea of very distant origins Darwinism and claimed that each race had a separate package of social and psychological traits transmitted through bloodlinesRacial RealitiesDefine racialization and use this concept to explain the antiMuslim backlash in America since the 911 attacks oRacializationthe formation of a new racial identity in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of peopleoRacialization was bestowed on all dark skinned Arab looking people in United StatesEven if they were Indian South Asian or not even Islamic They were considered the enemy after 911 just because they resembled the terrorists and therefore they were racialized Race versus EthnicityExplain the difference between race and ethnicity and describe how an ethnic identity can become racializedoRace is about domination and struggle for powerIt is the organizing principles for social inequality and a means of legitimating exclusion and harassmentRace is externally imposed involuntary usually based on physical differences hierarchal exclusive and unequaloEthnicityones ethnic quality or affiliationIt is voluntary selfdefined nonhierarchal fluid and multiple and based on cultural differences not physical ones per seEthnicity can be thought of as a nationality not in the sense of carrying the right and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past or future nationality oEthnicity can be turned off at any time whereas race is something you are stuck with and it distinguishes you as other
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