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Exam 2 Study Suide

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Louisiana State University
SOCL 2001

1SOCIOLOGY 2001EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDECHAPTER 5NETWORKS AND ORGANIZATIONSSocial GroupsSocial groups form the building blocks for society and for most social interactionGeorge Simmel argued that the key element in determining the form of social relations in a group is the SIZE of the group and he emphasized the particular differences between social relations in a dyad group of two and a triad group of three or moreDyad is the most intimate form of social life because the two members are mutually dependent on each otherIf one member leaves the group the group ceases to existWhen a third person joins a dyad that person can fill the role of eitherorMediatormember of a triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the two other actors in the groupTertius gaudensthe third that rejoices the new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members of the groupDivide et imperadivide and conquer the role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in the groupAs a group increases in size the number of possible relationships increases exponentiallySimmels groups larger than a dyadtriadSmall Groupsa group characterized by facetoface interaction a unifocal perspective lack of formal arrangements and a certain level of equalityPartiesa group that is similar to a small group but multifocalFacetoface interactions lack of formal arrangements certain level of equality2Large Groupsa group characterized by the presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and consequently status differentiationCooleys two main types of groupsPrimary Groupssocial groups such as family or friends composed of intimate facetoface relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involvedSecondary Groupsgroups marked by impersonal instrumental relationships those existing as a means to an endOther groups includeInGroupsanother term for the powerful group most often the majorityOutGroupsanother term for the stigmatized or less powerful group the minorityReference Groupsa group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groupsAsch Testexperiment developed in the 40s that shows how much people are influenced by the actions or norms of a groupFrom Groups To NetworksSocial Networka set of relationsessentially a set of dyadsheld together by ties between individualsTiea set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our networkNarrativethe sum of the stories contained in a series of tiesEmbeddednessrefers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social networkThe more embedded a ties is the stronger it isStrength of Weak Tiesdeveloped by Granovetter explains that relatively weak ties can actually be quite valuable because they are more likely to provide new opportunities and information than a strongly embedded tie
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