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Exam 1 Notes

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Louisiana State University
SOCL 2211

Exam 1 Notes82312Chapter 1Whats the point of social scienceTo describe a piece of social realityoReality is a social constructoie How do you know the world is roundTwo basic ways that we know things1Beliefagreement2Experiencedirect experience of new thingsaffirmation of prior beliefsLooking for realityKnowledge from agreement realityoScienceobtaining secondhand knowledgeTraditionaccepted knowledge about way the world works inherited body of knowledge is jumping point for gaining more knowledge some degree of devotion to tradition is necessary for societyAuthorityacceptance of new discoveries depends on statusauthority of person who discoversprovides new informationBoth beneficial not always trustworthyGives us a starting point to push us into the right directionErrors in inquiryobservation and some scientific solutionsoInaccurate observationsmost of our daily observations are casual and semiconsciousBeing aware to be conscious of observations leads to moreaccurate observations WAY TO COMBAT ERRORoOvergeneralizationslook for patterns among specific things observed around us and often assume a few similar events are a general patternStart out by saying this is what Im looking at and determine aplan for your observationsgives you a sense of reliability toreplicate your study WAY TO COMBAT ERRORoSelective observationsonce you find patterns in society you have blinders on to only see that specific observationState at onset of project the number and kinds of observationsyoure looking for WAY TO COMBAT ERRORSpecifically look for deviant caseskeep asking until you findsomeone different WAY TO COMBAT ERRORoIllogical reasoningconsciously and explicitly using logical reasoningScientific method WAY TO COMBAT ERRORThree views of realityWhats really real1Premodern view things are as they seemie headachesomething in your head is making your head hurtsuch as demons2Modern viewacknowledgement of human subjectivityBased on observationWe dont believe the same thing but its okay to challenge iteachotherie someone sailed around the world so we know its round3Postmodern viewthere is no objective realitysubjective realityEveryone has a different perceptionie everyone says book on the desk looks different because ofwhere their view is from the bookFoundations of Social ScienceBasic Assumption of social science human behavior while displaying a degree of variability also displays a surprising degree of regularityTendencies of regularity in human behaviorie birth rateeveryone has a different idea of when to have achild however if you look at the birth rate the past 20 years it isbasically the same2 pillars of science logic and observationoBoth relate to the 3 major aspects of the scientific process1Theorysystematic explanation for the observations that we make about human behavior deals with logic2Data collectionobservation3Data analysispatterns in observationDevelopment of TheorySocial science theory has to do with what is not with what should beCant make moral statementvalue statement what is betterworserightwrongSocial regularitiessocial science aims toFind regularities in the social world observationsWhywhere they existRepresent probabilistic patternsAggregates not individualssociology is not interested in individual behavior but in explaining patterns of societal behavior collective actions and situations of many individualsAttributes and variablesSocial research involves variables and attributes involving thesevariablesPeople are part of the research group only because they possess theattribute or variable neededAttributesqualitiescharacteristics that describe an object wayyou define variable
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