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Socl 3101 Mid Term (scored 92%)

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SOCL 3101
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9808 Lecture 1 4 traditions of theory oinitial ClassicalBiblical thinking and church thinking from the beginning through feudalism ancient Greek thoughtsviewed society as an organic whole1 Role of wisdom the truth exists and it is a question of wisdom what the truth is and the society should be governed by true thingsPeople are fundamentally unequalespecially in wisdom some people had better access to wisdom2 Language is used for finding wisdom and truth 3 after Christianity the church was seen as the seat of the truthyou could look to the church and find the truth and would take the leading role in establishing in what is true4 all of existence is in a great chain of being GOD at top and depending on the exact religious tradition Jesus Trinity Saints also reflected in the human realm also in secular sociality king at top going down through the nobility down to the commonersPope bishop cardinals priests layAll mediated there is no direct link from the bottom to the top a believer is not through to have direct contact with God but through direct links in the church The general view is that each link had certain relations with the link above obedience and below protection oIf they are violated there is trouble5 society is viewed as part of the great chain of bring a family or body corpusCorporatist theory like a body society is organized in different party some are leading parts some are following or dependant parts head of the society is like a father brainand the other parts of the body perform their function keeps the corporate healthysaid to be in harmony with each other if there is not harmonysociety is sick parts fit together to be in harmony not an individualist structure its a corporate structure ththChange will be the 16 and 17 centuryBreak from Classicalo1 The IndividualistUtilitarian TraditionStarted Reformation or Italian renaissance Hobbes and Social Contractarianismth16401660 17 centuryRejects most all of classicalEnglish civil war not trying to take sides puritan or Anglo he was defending the traditional order with radical arguments he begins to establish things Social contract society is composed of not by command but by social contract that individuals come together contract with each other to form a society human creationatomistic view of societyTruth may exist but not everyone will agree on what truth is and it comes from a background of over 100 years of warfare about truth and it does not make sense to fight about it truth should be a private matter to not make it a point of conflict its a prudential approach State of Nature oIndividuals as atomsViolation will they can want this and not want thatoIndividuals have complete sovereignty over themselvesoPeople motivated by desirepride and fear of death maximizing their utilitiesGet as much of what you want and avoid what you dont wantoPeople are equal all have desires all fear death all are mortalImplicitly democraticEveryone will die which makes us all mortaloWar of every person against every other personEveryone is trying to get what they wayoCondition of anarchy and strongest person winning but strongest person must also fearAnarchy Greek lack of rule lack of government Natural condition of human is anarchy civil war and the war of every person against other people winner is not assured some people may team up no one is safe extreme unsafe oDenial that religion is effective in reducing fearDid not deny that truth exists but we do not definitively know existswe dont have to know if it exists all we have to do is observe that no one agrees and fighting will continue the real problem is a prudence in peoples hearts they will not be believingconquered people will act as if they believe but they dont which will not help any kind of a truth make the problem of truth a private concernnot imposed because if wont work which leads to conflict which leads to war 2Separation of church and state oProblem of aristocratic pridePride also creates trouble and we have to channel pride so its not leading to conflictThe result is a social contractSocial contract to build state and societyoRational people will give up sovereignty to stateAssure my safety by entering a contact with everyone else and gets together and gives up the sovereignty and assign it to the government king etc for the sake of safety you have a social contract and assign out sovereignty to a government and the government needs to protect us from each other by establishing laws you are free other than the laws you have freedom where the law is not needed to protect youoDevelopedLockes moderation of this view oLife liberty and propertySociety can create stateRight of revolutionTolerationoReligious toleration American views and declaration of independence 1776Adam Smith and the harmonization of individualism Wealth of Nations you can have a society built of individuals but it will not lead to conflictbecause individuals will exchange things with each other because of different talentsTheory of moral sentimentsoSympathy leads to comparisonoComparison leads to strivingoStriving changes whole face of the globe Wealth of NationsoPeople are equal but have different talents have tendency to truck barter and exchange one thing for anotherFollowing your own interests can lead to harmony there are qualitative differences even though people arethey have different talents it will allow people to trade things instead of fighting they can exchange thingsoThis leads not to war but to peaceful complementarityCan lead to a harmony and the division of laborOne completes anotherResult is market society3
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