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SOCL 3371
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TEST1The Criminal Justice System a loosely organized collection of agencies police correction and courts charged with protecting the public maintaining order enforcing the law identifying transgressors bringing the guilty to justice and treating criminal behaviorCriminologystudy of the origin extent and nature of crime in societyCrimea violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code created by people holding social and political poweroIn order for a crime to occur there must be a law against that behaviorCrime versus devianceoAll crime is deviant but not all deviance is a crimeoExamplesoMurdercrimeoProstitutioncrimeoDrug usedevianceoGamblingcrime if under 21deviance if over 21What defines conduct as criminal as a crime1When it causes harm or injury to individuals or societyoMurder assault rape robbery2When it undermines public or social orderoDisorderly conduct DUI3When it is an offense against prevailing moralityoNo sale of alcohol on Sundays4When it undermines the capacity of the criminal justice systemoResisting arrest perjuryTypes of crimesoViolent crimesoMurder rape assault and robberyoProperty crimesoBurglary theft motor vehicle theft and arsonoPublic Order crimesoPublic drunkenness prostitution gambling drug offensesoWhite Collar crimesoEmbezzlement credit card fraud insurance fraud tax evasionoCyber crimesoHacking phishing internet fraud identity theft History of criminal justice in the United StatesththoCrime rates may have actually been much higher in the 19 and early 20 centuries than it is todayoRevolutionary WaroCivil WaroKu Klux KlanoFeuds in the Appalachians and the Old WestthCrime in the 20 Centuryo19001935 saw a sustained increase in criminal activityoDepression Era OutlawsMa Barker and her sonsBonnie and ClydeJohn DillingeroOrganized crimeThe mafia the mob and gangstersDeveloping the CJSoMid 1700sCesare BeccariaoAdvocated that justice did not have to be physical punishmentoArgued for a correction systemoInfluenced the contemporary CJSo1829 London Metropolitan PolicestoThe 1 police agencyoMid 1850s oSaw a rise in the number of prisons and the idea of using incarceration as a punishmento1919Chicago Crime CommissionoA privately funded organization that acted on behalf of citizens to make sure that law enforcement agencies were behaving correctlyoCreated a standard for law enforcement and the criminal justice systemo1931Wickersham CommissionoPresident HooveroAdvocated the treatment and rehabilitation of offenders so that they could reenter societyThe Modern Era of Justiceo1950soThe American Bar Association discovered the rampant missuse of discretion by justice professionalsoFirst use of the term criminal justice systemo1960soCommission on Law Enforcement and Administration of JusticeThe Crime CommissionPresident Lyndon Johnson
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