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Louisiana State University
SOCL 3601

SOCL 3061Test 1 Friday September 21 2012Macrolevel theoriesoStructuralFunctionalismLooks at the functions of the different parts of society and how one change in society can cause change in the other partsLooking at society in its whole oConflict TheoryExtends from Karl Marx communism Takes ideas and puts them in a broader perspectiveLooks at social life and social change in terms of conflict and competition between various groups as a driving force in societyPillars of MarxEconomic determinismeconomy determines the shape and form of all other institutions within societyHistorical materialismevery epoch of human history can be designated by the dominance ofparticular economic system when one is overthrown another replaces itoBoth of these theoretical perspectives take a macro level view of society Society is something that exists above and beyond the individual Society places constraints on opportunity and makesshapes the individualMicrolevel theoriesoSymbolic InteractionismGeorge H MeadThings get done in our society by individuals with reasons for doing what they doWe use significant symbols such as language or other means of interaction that allow us to communicate and carry significant meaning to all members of society to allow our society has come to function and build together Our most used symbol is language We create competent societies because of it oBehaviorismLooks at all human behavior in terms of stimuli and responseSensebrainEvolved out of animal psychologyPavlovs dog and Skinners PigeonsGetting rewarded and punished for certain behaviors We learn to behave in socially accepted ways These behaviors become habits we are habituated into this behaviorBF SkinnerRevived behaviorism through operant conditioning with positive rewards and negative punishmentPigeons were dependent upon food from PavlovBehaviorism does not consider our cognitive abilities There is a cognitive process that we use to analyze any stimuli and try to make sense out of it and what it the appropriate response 1SOCL 3061Test 1 Friday September 21 2012oRational Choice Exchange TheoryFor exchange theorists every interaction between humans is an exchange all human behavior involves some kind of exchange We are going to receive something in return It is a cost benefit analysis If benefits outweigh costs one will be more likely to engage in the behavior uses brain cognitive abilities to make rational decisionsBenefit rewardcostsrisksAn educateduneducated guess is made because we may not foresee unexpected rewardspunishmentsirrational thinkingA problem with exchange theory is it depends on what the reward isCannot be applied to everyone but it does show that we make rational choice and analyze oSocial Learning TheoryAlbert BanduraWe learn by 3 ways1We internalize what we are taught by others2Other people teach us right from wrongWe take this knowledge and we absorb it We learn common behavior through interaction with others System of rewards and punishments 1Our ability to engage in vicarious learningThis is what really differentiates social learning theory We can watch others and see what they do From this watching we can see how others respond to them We can model them to see if it worked for ourselvesoDramaturgyErving GoffmanLike an actor on stage we need audience to believe the character we are presenting to them Symbolic and dramaturgy are very complex and need to be explained thoroughly oSociobiology We are social creatures We have to survive and reproduce All of our goals in life aim towards reproducing our genes Edward Wilson1975said his theory is a synthesis of the natural and social sciencesAll human behavior boils down to our drive to reproduce our genes oGenes reproduce not organismsoOrganisms only help to reproduce more successfullyMany reproduce because of the alpha male especially high animals oSperm is cheap and constantly renewingoTherefore they need to try to make the most copies2
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