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Exam 4 (aced the test and got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
SOCL 3601

SOCL 3601Exam 4 Chapters 9 10 11CHAPTER 9 Social AttitudesThe Social Psychological Study of AttitudesAttitudes are the positive or negative evaluations of an object a person or group or an ideaSociologists examine how our position in society affects attitude formationThe social psychological study of attitudes seeks to explain how social forces affect individuals attitudes and how these attitudes relate to behavior We will address the following questionsoWhat is the nature of an attitude How do researchers study attitudes and behaviorsoHow do people construct attitudesoHow do attitudes vary across social groups Do attitudes change over timeSI the Social Construction of AttitudesThe SI perspective views attitudes like any other aspect of social lifeoThey are continually being constructed based on our interactions with other peopleContemporary research suggests that direct experience with specific people or objects may have as strong or stronger effect on our attitude development than our preexisting values and beliefsSI Dimensions of AttitudesAttitudes have multiple dimensions and they relate to other important conceptsoValues and beliefs refer to strongly held relatively stable sets of attitudesoThe cognitive or thinkingaspect of an attitude is formally called an opinionoIt is also possible to have a nonattitude toward an object when you do not care either way about an objectTogether these concepts show the challenges of assessing what people really think and feel about the worldSI Linking Attitudes and BehaviorOne of the reasons people study attitudes is to predict peoples behaviorsThe relationship between our attitudes and behavior is typically smalloThe small relationship between attitudes and behavior may reflect poor measurement of attitudes andor behaviorsoExample peoples attitudes about recycling They favor recycling but dont actually recyclePeople also have agency the ability to act differently than they think and feel in a situationSI Prejudicial Attitudes and BehaviorOne major application of SI to the study of attitudes and behaviors is the understanding of prejudiceoPrejudice Attitude of dislike or active hostility toward a particular groupWEB Du Bois made very frank observations of the poor relationships between Blacks and WhitesHis observations led scholars to study the causes of prejudicial attitudes and behaviorsSI Conscious and Unconscious RacismDespite the fact that most people do not consider themselves racist racism still exists in society and can take on many formsoConscious racism can be measured by asking people if they like a particular groupoUnconscious racism includes the ways in which we may be biased against a group without being aware of it oInstitutional racism occurs when minority groups lack the same access to services or opportunities afforded other group membersSI the Study of Social DistanceSocial Distance refers to how close we feel to other peopleThe strength of attitudes toward people in other groups may reflect our prejudices toward people in those groupsFindings form years of research using Bordgardus 1958 social distance scale show that respondents felt closest to Canadians Americans and English and most distant to Asians and blacksSI Subtle SexismConscious and unconscious prejudices toward someones race class and gender can exist for any group of peopleSubtle sexism refers to the unequal treatment of women that goes unnoticedoPervasive use of the term he in texts is an example of unconscious gender biasoSexist cultural beliefs can also affect mens and womens career aspirationsSI Changing Prejudicial AttitudesOne technique for improving relationships between groups is the social contact hypothesis oMembers of each group must have equal status such as similar age or educational level
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