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Ch 12

5 Pages

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SOCL 4331

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Chapter 12 Challenging the SystemSocial MovementsSocial Movementsongoing efforts by groups to promote or prevent social changeWork beyond confines of political process and generally attract those who feel excludedCollective actionpeople coming together in planned or spontaneous actions and demonstrationsNew social movementstypically global stressing international action that encompasses social economic and environmental issuesSpan a wide variety of interest and age groupsThe Enduring Struggle The Labor MovementKarl MarxThe Communist Manifesto1848History is the history of class conflictIn Europe this led to worker revolts uprisings food riots and street battles1850sNew industry sprang up so rapidly many failed but a few grew exponentiallyTheir growth depended on their ability to secure cheap labor and work their employees to their limitsStreams of immigrant workers flooded AmericaThere were no labor lawsChildren worked in mills and minesWomen worked in textile factoriesEarly unionsOften had a progressive or socialist ideologyKnights of LaborInternational Workers of the WorldWestern Federation of MinersEmployers fought against unions by having lockouts armed security police and government pressureThis led to serious serious riots usually leaving people deadAmerican Federation of Labor AFLWas a lot less radical and less threatening and embraced a progressive political agendaOrganized workers around specific craft specialties kind of like guilds in the middle ages1900sGradual workplace reformsMuckrakersjournalists who wrote about worker abuse helped gain momentum by increasing public support for such progressive labor reformsLaws eventually banned child labor limited working hours set minimum wages and set guidelines for workplace safetyEmployers were okay with this seeing as it virtually eliminated violent confrontationInternational Labor Organization ILO formed in 19191920sPost WWI backlash against unionsRed scareanyone who had socialist sympathies like most unionists was seen as suspectEmployers and government worked together in unionbusting activities that broke up strikes and intimidated union organizersSharp decline in immigrationHowever rural blacks were moving to the north to escape Jim Crow laws and southern racism so employers still had tons of cheap labor only they also used race to divide workers1930sNew Deal EraThe Great Depression showed the need for economic reformsFDR was elected because he had a strong coalition of workers rural urban black white
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