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CRIM Exam 1 Notes (got 94% in the course)

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SOCL 4461
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Exam 111 Overview of Criminology Key IssuesQuestions About CrimeCrime v DevianceAntebellumDevianceoWhen a person goes against any of societies norms any behavior that society says you should not dooNot all deviant behaviors are crimesoNormsare social rules proscribe certain behavior when to do and not do something prescribe a behavior any violation of those rules is a act of devianceCrimeoA deviant behavior that is so bad it is considered a crimeoAll crimes are considered deviant behaviorWhat is CriminologyThree Part Definition The Study of law making the study of law breaking and the social reaction to law breakingEdwin SutherlandWhen does a deviant behavior become a crime Consensus Model of LawoAssumes that if most people in society agree that something is so bad that there should be a law against itit becomes a crimeoDetermined by society and a majorityoAs societies opinion changes so do the laws regarding crimeConflict ModeloThings are made criminal when people in power decide it is against the lawoNot everyone agrees it should be against the law only a select fewoExampleProhibitionoPeople in power make laws that benefit themselvesThe laws have been put in place by a combination of both of these modelsCounter CultureAgainst the users not against the drugCocaine useLaw BreakingThe documentation of different types of crimeExplaining those trendstheories Social Reaction to Law BreakingPrisons Legal System Criminal Justice System Courts PoliceThe Documentation of Law BreakingCriminology Systematic scientific study of crime so that we can understand how crime happens and how we can reduce itoNo tire tracks Skin etc Establish relationships between broad variablesoWhat is a variableSomething that changes and variesHow do you explain the variation by using another variationExample Smokers and Lung CancerVariation of rates of Lung Cancer in cities by rates of smoking controlling for other factorsGraphTheory is nothing more than an explanation about how two or more variable are related A road map for your analysisoOutlines potential relationships you test to see if trueoMust be able tooYou can never prove a theory you can falsify themEducation and Relation to CrimeEmpirical Regulatorymeasure that people keep finding over and over againEmpiricalMeasurement regulatoryover and overAt such a primitive levelPenumbral CrimesCrimes that the majority of people commitbecause most people ignore these lawsThere is no stigma attached to breaking these lawsNot really enforced by the policeExamplespeedingTwo types of criminal lawSubstantive LawoFor the citizenslaws that we have to followProcedural LawoThe laws for the governmentpolice court systems etcRules that have to be followed when making criminal lawsLaws must be specific cant be too vague or overbroadCant criminalize a persons status or thoughtcan only make actual behaviors or actions against the lawExample Post Facto LawsoThe Constitution does not allow these types of laws to be writtenoCant charge someone or punish someone for doing something before it was made illegal12 Crime Statistics Uniform Crime Reports National Crime Survey NIBRS Crime DataThis is the most important tool that a criminologist hasOfficial statistics about crimesoData is collected by local law enforcement and sent to the FBIWhy is it so importantoAllows us to estimate the frequency of crimesoTells us different types of offenders and victimsoLets us target criminal justice resources where they are needed the mostTwo sources of crime dataUniform Crime Reports UCROfficial Sourceo1924 J Edger Hoover head of the FBI 50 years agoSuggested that national statistics on crime and the FBI should be the agency that does that 1930 it was passed and running six years later He knew the power of information and collected on people and politicians oFBI collects info from Law Enforcement AgenciesoFBI puts it all together and you get the UCRThese are only crimes known to the police crimes in the USLaw Enforcement send up Offence ReportsAlso arrest report when person is caughtoSeparated into two categoriesPart I Index CrimesViolent Crimes HARRoHomicideMurderoAggravated AssaultUnlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflecting sever or aggravated bodily injuryoRapeoRobberyThe taking or attempting to take something of valueBy force or the threat of force and or by putting the victim in fear Property Crimes BLAAoBurglaryThe unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony thereinoLarceny TheftSimple TheftoAuto TheftoArsonPart II CrimesNonIndex CrimesDrug violations DUI simple assault disorderly conduct liquorlaw violations public drunkenness etc
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