[PHIL 181] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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LUC
PHIL 181
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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“For if you suppose that by killing human beings you will prevent someone from
reproaching you for not living correctly, you do not think nobly.”
Socrates on trial for his life for corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods
People who confused Socrates with the Sophists (people who take money to teach
people to argue correctly → smooth talk and rhetorical trickery to allow people to win
arguments with weaker reasoning)
Mystique around philosophy → distinction between philosophy (search for truth) and
sophistry (making clever arguments so you can get payed)
Socrates’ apology - doesn’t apologize → more of a defense
Explanation of how he got this way and why everyone hates him → develops into theory
of virtue and wisdom
He tried to find someone who was wiser than him (the oracle in Delphi (therefore Apollo)
said Socrates was the wisest → tried to disprove (he doesn’t think he’s the wisest), and
in doing so, proved that other groups were not as wise)
Socrates realizes that he is the wisest because he does not know that he is the wisest
(he knows that he doesn’t know shit. Everyone else thinks they know some shit) →
challenges esteemed people in the city (politics, engineers, people of power, etc.)
Philosophy is love of wisdom → pursue wisdom (nobody else is pursuing wisdom
because everyone else thinks they have it → Confucius - people who aren’t wise or
junzi don’t seek more wisdom)
2 kinds of people in the world → philosophers and ignorant people
Have to philosophize in order to get as close to wisdom as you can (but seems socrates
is the only person trying to do that, and people don’t like being called out on their
ignorance)
^^^people value → money, power, reputation, not wisdom
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Socrates thinks the good, virtuous life is → having soul in good shape, not external
material → inner stuff mostly matters (most people ignore this → upside down world)
^^people would rather feel good than be good (backwards)
What makes your life good is having your soul in good shape → being virtuous
(CONFUCIUS) → by HAVING EVERYONE BELIEVE THAT YOU ARE EVIL WHEN
YOU ARE GOOD, THEN HAVING EVERYONE BELIEVE THAT YOU ARE GOOD
WHEN YOU ARE EVIL
HOW DO YOU BECOME VIRTUOUS???????
The first step to becoming virtuous is figuring out what virtue is (search for knowledge,
wisdom)
Socrates argues for Intellectualism → wisdom is the same thing as virtue
Philosophy → question what you have been taught in order to question what the good is
→ in order to have a life worth living
Easier to live unquestioningly in upside down established world
Plato basically thinks the good is one thing and is eternal
Things are good in different ways (plato would disagree → in order to all be good, they
all have to participate in the idea of goodness, which has this unity, goodness of all
good things are all emanations of the highest good
Socrates doesn’t fear death because he doesn’t know what death entails → therefore
there is wisdom in that
Fear of death is a symptom of being in upside down world → thinking you know death is
bad is ignorant → believing that something is bad when you have no basis for that belief
If dying isn’t bad, what's the problem with killing someone?
Killing Socrates isn’t bad for him, it's bad for YOU → apollo put me here to make you
better, your city is a horse, i am a fly buzzing around to wake your ass up (PAGE 12-13)
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