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PSYC 202 Study Guide - Final Guide: Dopamine Hypothesis Of Schizophrenia, Henry Molaison, 5-Ht2A Receptor

Course Code
PSYC 202
Stephan Steidl
Study Guide

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1. Discuss how studying patient H.M. has contributed to our understanding of the
temporal nature of memory and to the differences between “types” of memory.
How was H.M.’s brain different? Be sure to explain what types of tests were used
and explicitly state how the results justify the conclusions.
a. Background: had severe epilepsy in youth, had surgery to remove tissue
(anterior portions of temporal lobe also removed)
b. Anterograde amnesia: can’t form new memories
i. Damage to hippocampal region and cortical areas surrounding the
ii. Cerebellum shrunken
c. Showed us memory is not a unitary phenomenon temporally or qualitatively
i. Short term memory remained intact, but long term memory was deficient
ii. Types of memories formed: verbal bad, implicit good
d. Performed memory tracing test: trace outline of a shape on paper, but see hand
in mirror because it is blocked by an object between face and hand.
i. No episodic memory of event, but skill learning still normal (significant
progress made over the course of the experiment)
H.M. was a patient who suffered with severe epilepsy in his youth. As a result, he underwent
surgery to remove brain tissue, including anterior and medial portions of the temporal lobe,
which included a part of the hippocampus, a brain structure that is extremely important for
memory, and the entorhinal cortex. These lesions resulted in anterograde amnesia in H.M.- he
was unable to form new declarative memories. This was tested through a memory tracing test.
H.M. was told to trace the outline of a shape on paper, but he was unable to see his hand in a
direct line of vision- he had to see his hand through a mirror’s reflection. The direct line of vision
was blocked by an object between his body and his hand. After each day of the test, H.M. was
asked if he remembered performing this task. He said no, but after each time, his skill continued
to improve. This suggested that H.M. was unable to explicitly remember and verbalize
experiences he had recently, but his long term procedural memory remained intact.
2. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia results
from abnormal brain dopamine levels. Explain/define the hypothesis (what
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