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SOCL 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Social Forces, Social Stratification, Racism

Course Code
SOCL 101
Carrie Coward-Bucher
Study Guide

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1. Social equality: no differences in wealth, prestige, power or status based on non natural
things exist
a. Equal in every way possible
2. Stratification: systemic inequalities between groups of people because of the social
system (persist over time, maintained thru beliefs, top has most amenities)
a. Class system: economic stratification system which has cohesive, oppositional
groups and loose social mobility
b. Estate system: political stratification system which has limited social mobility
c. Caste system: religion-based stratification system with no social mobility
3. Types of equality
a. Opportunity: everyone has an equal chance to achieve things because the rules
are fair.
b. Condition: everyone should have an equal starting point
c. Outcome: each player should end up with the same thing, regardless of
whether or not the rules of the game were fair
4. Free rider problem: when more than one person works on something, each person will
likely assume the others will do the work
5. Proletariat: working class
6. Bourgeois: capitalist class
7. Contradictory class locations: people can fall between two distinct classes (Eric O
8. Status hierarchy system: stratification system based on prestige
9. Elite-mass dichotomy system: stratification system with a governing elite who hold power
over the masses
10. Power elite: term used by C. Wright Mills
11. Meritocracy: promotion of people based on merit
12. Socioeconomic status: combination of social standing and economic status
13. Income: money received through work, gifts, or investments
14. Wealth: family or individual’s net worth (total assets - total debts)
15. Upper class: the notion that these people are superior because of wealth and status and
the poor are fundamentally different and deviant
16. Middle class: people who work non manual labor jobs and earn a decent amount of
money (above the poverty line)
17. Social mobility: movement between different positions within a system of social
18. Structural mobility: inevitable from changes in the economy
19. Exchange mobility: exchanging jobs in a way that balances out
20. Status-attainment model: ranks people by socioeconomic status (income and edu) and
wants to specify characteristics of those who “make it”
21. Sex: biological differences distinguishing males and females
22. Gender: set of social norms associated with normative sex categories
23. Sexuality: desire towards
24. Gender identity: one’s internal sense of gender
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