PSY 201 Study Guide - Final Guide: Theta Wave, Light Stage, Diazepam

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Published on 2 May 2016
Study Guide for PSYCHOLOGY 201 – Exam 2
Chapter 5:
Circadian rhythms-Latin term for “about a day” for changes that occur on a roughly 24-
hour basis. Including hormone release, brain waves, body temperature, and drowsiness.
Biological Clock- a meager 20,000 neurons located in the hypothalamus make us feel
DROWSY at different times day and night.
that’s why most of us feel like taking a nap at around 3 or 4 in the afternoon.
Sleep & dreaming
Stage 1- light stage of sleep that lasts for about 5 to 10 minutes. produces theta waves.
Stage 2- Our brain waves slow down even more. SLEEP SPINDLES (sudden intense
bursts of electrical activity) 12-14 cycles a second. Occasionally rising and falling waves
known as K-Complexes. 65% of our sleep in this stage.
Stage 3 & 4- After 10-30 minutes, light sleep gives way too much deeper slow-wave sleep,
in which what we can observe as Delta Waves, which are as slow as 2 cycles per second.
SLEEP STAGE. Drinking alcohol most of the time blocks this deep sleep which is why we
don’t feel fully rested in the morning.
Stage 5: REM SLEEP- After 15-30 minutes, we return to stage 2 before our brains shift
dramatically into high gear, with high frequency, low amplitude waves resembling those
of wakefulness. Our hyped brain waves in REM sleep also increases our heart rate and
blood pressure. 20-25% of nights sleep. EYES move rapidly back and forth during this
REM – Non REM Stages 1-4=NON-REM sleep
Sleep disorders
Insomnia- MOST COMMON* (a) having trouble falling asleep (taking more than 30 min)
(b) waking too early in the morning, and (c ) waking up during the night and having
trouble falling back to sleep.
Narcolepsy- LEAST COMMON* Dramatic disorder in which people experience bouts of
sudden sleep lasting anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes, and less frequently,
as long as an hour.
Sleep Apnea- Sleeping disorder in which they have trouble breathing and not being able to
breathe properly when asleep, making them feel exhausted in the morning.
Night Terrors- Harmless events that occur almost exclusively in children, they can occur in
adults especially when in extreme stress. they occur in NON-REM sleep.
Sleepwalking- Walking while fully asleep often involves relatively little activity, but
sleepwalkers have been known to drive cars, and turn on computers while asleep.
Sexsomnia- People engage in sexual acts while asleep, and don't remember what occurred
when woke.
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Hypnosis- Is a set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in
their perceptions and sensations, thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors.
Drug physical & psychological dependence
Psychoactive drugs- Contain chemicals similar to those found naturally in
our brains and that their molecules alter consciousness by changing chemical
processes in neurons. Some of these drugs are used to treat illness, but others are
mostly for recreational purposes.
Depressants- Decreased activity of the CNS (initial high, followed by sleepiness, slower
thinking, and impaired concentration)
Alcohol, barbiturates, Quaalude, Valium
Stimulants- Increased activity of the CNS (Sense of alertness, well-being, energy)
Tobacco, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Methamphetamine
Opiates- Sense of euphoria, decreased pain.
Heroin, Morphine, Codeine
Psychedelics- Dramatically altered perception, mood, and thoughts.
Marijuana, LSD, Ecstasy
Tolerance- A key feature of substance use disorders, occurs when people need to consume
an increased amount of a drug to achieve intoxication. People who develop a tolerance to
the drug will not fill that “kick” from the drug anymore.
Withdrawal- Unpleasant effects of reducing or stopping consumption of a drug that users
had consumed habitually/daily.
Physical Dependence- Dependence on a drug that occurs when people continue to take it
to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
Psychological Dependence- Dependence on a drug that occurs when continued use of the
drug is motivated by intense cravings.
Addiction & tolerance
Cocaine- Increases the activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine and perhaps serotonin,
which contributes to its reinforcing effects.
Amphetamines- Most common abused drugs, with 37% trying them by age 50.
Marijuana- Most frequently used illegal drug in the United States, by the age of 50 , 74% of adults have
claimed to have at least tried it.
Short term effects- Sense of time slowing down, enhanced sensation of touch, increased appreciations for
sound, Hunger(the munchies), feelings of well-being, and a tendency to giggle. Later they become quiet,
introspective, and sleepy.
At higher doses users may experience disturbances in short term memory,exagerrated emotions, an altered
sense of self, and more rarely, extreme anxiety, panic, and psychotic episodes.
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