[GEO 451] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (57 pages long)

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GEO 451
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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What%is%Urban%Planning?!An!effort!to!define!systematically!and!think!through!
urban!and!regional!problems!to!improve!the!quality!of!decision‐making!
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Historical%Origins%of%Planning%in%the%U.S.%
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Importance%of%urban%geography%and%planning%
History!matters!in!planning.!Usually!planning!is!done!over!a!place!that!has!a!history!
and!it!affects!the!new!plan!
!
History!is:!Revealing,!it!produces!Context,!Patterns!(elements!and!arrangements),!
and!Processes!(designs!and!objectives)!!
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Humans!have!a!strong!desire!to!order!things.!Socially%(themselves)!and!Spatially%
(the!environment)!!
Humans!aren’t!satisfied!with!just!ordering!themselves,!they!order!the!environment!
and!then!feel!the!need!to!modify!it.!!
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Native%American%Urbanism%
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Mississippian%Culture!(mound!builders)‐!Had!hierarchical!structure.!Similar!to!the!
city!of!Florence!but!was!more!spread!out.!There!were!6!different!areas.!!
City!was!called!Cahokia‐!A.D!1200.!10,000‐50,000!a!center!of!population,!it!had!
administration!and!commerce.!It!was!located!in!now!St.!Louis.!The!miss!and!ohio!
rivers!collide!for!a!good!location.!!
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Is!it!Urban?!What!makes!us!think!it’s!a!city?!It!has!permanent!structures,!
government!system,!etc.!!
Is!it!planning?!It!has!a!sort!of!zoning!structure,!it’s!ordered!around!sun!positions!for!
farming.!They!had!a!big!picture!system!of!how!earth!was!arranged.!!
!
The!Mississippian!city!set!up!similar!to!the!Aztecs!in!look,!which!proved!that!people!
were!in!communication!with!each!other.!!
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Anasazi%(7001350)%
!
Basically!one!big!pueblo,!no!real!or!organized!streets.!Has!some!sort!of!defense.!The!
use!of!stone!was!used!to!keep!warmth!in!in!the!winter!and!cool!in!the!summer.!
Stone!was!also!used!for!location!and!for!permanence.!In!order!to!farm!they!had!to!
build!irrigation!systems!so!they!did!not!move!around!because!they!were!investing!
so!much!in!the!land.!!
!
The!Mesa!Verde!is!a!similar!structure/city!
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European%Colonial%Urbanism%
!
Context!
Abundant%Land%(left!from!the!Indians),!!
Low%Populations%(of!native!Americans!especially!from!death!from!diseases),!Basic%
Economics%(agriculture,!extraction!(removing!non‐replenish!able!things),!and!
trade),!!
Competing%sovereign%powers%and!agendas,!!
Central%authority%was%remote%so!most!authority!came!from!local!things.!!
!
Spanish%%
%
Context:%%
Pueblos!(authority)!
Presidios!(Military)!
!Mission!towns!(to!convert!others)!
Settlements!were!near!coastal!ports!or!native!American!populations!
!
Saint%Augustine%(1565)!
How!is!this!urban!or!geographic!planning?!!
Grid%system%near!waterfront!(they!were!oriented!toward!trade)!
Main%roads%
Church%at%center%of!town!(religious!importance)!
Strategically%defensive%(parade!ground!and!fort)!!
!
Law%of%the%Indies%(1573)!
Was!a!set!of!planning!laws.!Followed!what!was!already!there,!how!historically!
things!were!planned.!Was!partly!to!keep!people!loyal!to!authority!and!also!
efficiency.!!
Ordinances%for%locating,%building,%and%populating%settlements%%
a!central!plaza!(to!be!on!the!shoreline!if!coastal)!!
major!institution!on!plaza!
deminsions!of!streets!and!how!set!back!houses!are!were!set!
!
This!was!the!first!American!planning!legislation!!
!
Santa%Fe%(1609)!
Has!central!plaza,!there!is!a!grid!to!the!streets.!It!follows!the!code!in!the!layout!!
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