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GHS 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Extreme Poverty, Abdominal Pain, Antimicrobial Resistance


Department
Global Health Studies
Course Code
GHS 101
Professor
Dr. Hay
Study Guide
Midterm

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GHS EXAM 1
Slide Notes
Extreme poverty: $1.90 or less a day
o 7.5 Million people (10.7% of the world’s population) live in extreme
poverty
$7.40 a day: the ethical poverty line where people have a chance of achieving
a normal life span of 70 years
Typhoid
o A bacterial infection through the fecal-oral pathway
o The carriers are the ill
o Causes: fever, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches
o Vaccine works 72% of the time for 1-2 years
o Antibiotic resistance is 15-30 % in cases
o 20% mortality rate without treatment
o People can usually afford to go to a local healer for an egg
o 128-161,000 people die of it each year
Health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity
o Three levels:
Individual health: medicine and health care deal with this, is
curative
Public health: keep track of how groups of people are doing,
discover and examine the rates of disease or deaths in a city,
state, or category of people, preventative
Global Health: transdisciplinary field that brings people, skills,
technologies, and ideas together to ameliorate health inequity in
the world
Transdisciplinary: an integrative process in which
research work jointly to develop and use a shared
conceptual framework that synthesizes and extends
discipline-specific theories, concepts, methods, or all three
to create new models and language to develop solutions
for a common problem
The resources of one’s family determines the lifestyle
Different from international health in several ways
o Emphasis on relationships between international
donors and locals
o Increase of influence of nongovernmental
organizations with a decrease influence of
international organizations
o Significant funding for new technologies
o Recognition that health problems transcend
national borders

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o Support from both political conservatives and
progressives
o There is a strong relationship between health and wealth
The poorer you are the worse your health is
Wealth is one of the key determinants of health
Disease: any deviation from a state of health
o Illness
o Injury
o Disability
o Death
o Infectious vs Non-infectious
Infectious disease: disruption of a tissue or organ caused by
microbes or microbial products
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, worms and parasitic
organisms
Non-infectious disease: disruption of a tissue or organ caused by
agents other than microbes or microbial products
o Communicable vs Non-communicable
Communicable: disease-causing agent spreads from one host
organism to another
Contagious: disease causing agent spreads easily from one
host to another
Non-communicable: disease-causing agent cannot spread from
one host to another
o Acute vs Chronic
Acute: develops quickly and lasts a short time (3 months or less)
Most are infectious
Chronic: develops slowly and is long-lasting (3 months or longer)
Most are non-infectious
Epidemiology
o Study of when and where the diseases occur in human populations and
who within the population develops the diseases, with the goal of
determining how the disease occur
o Study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or
events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the
control of health problems
They count, divide, and compare
Case: set of standard criteria for classifying whether a
person has a particular disease, syndrome, or health
condition
Use of rates for comparison
o Descriptive Epidemiology
Covers time, place, and person
Time: occurrence

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Patterns of diseases occurrence by time is critical for
monitoring disease occurrence in a community and
assessing whether public intervention is needed
Displayed with number of cases and the time period
o Secular trends: annual cases or rates of a disease
over a period of years
Helps make policy decisions and programs
and infer what could be the cause of increase
or decrease and predicator
o Seasonality: graph of occurrence during week or
month over a year or more
Suggest hypotheses about how infection is
transmitted, what behavioral factors
increase risk, and other contributors
o Day of the week and time of day: shorter periods of
time
Conditions related to occupational or
environmental exposures that to occur
regularly scheduled intervals
o Epidemic curve: time course of a disease outbreak
or epidemic where y-number of cases and x-date of
diagnosis or day of symptoms
Suggest time and source of exposures, mode
of transmission, and causative agent
Place: provides insight into the geographic extent of the problem
and its geographic variation
Spot map: used for clusters or outbreaks with a limited
number of cases where x is the location that is most
relevant to the disease of interest
o Identify communities of high rick and set
hypotheses for more studies
Person: personal characteristics affect health
Age: most important
o Number of factors like susceptibility, opportunity
for exposure, incubation period
o Helps narrow focus
Sex: males typically have a higher risk than females
o This is due to higher estrogen levels in women
Ethnic and racial groups: influence things like
susceptibility and risk of disease
Socioeconomic status: adverse of health conditions
increase with decrease in status
o Analytical Epidemiology: key feature comparison group
Concerned with causes and effects (why and how0
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