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PSY 111 Midterm: PSY 111 Exam 2 Study Guide

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PSY 111
Spangler Brooke

PSY 111 Exam 2 Study Guide CHAPTER 6 Vocab: Reflexes  motor or neural reaction to specific stimulus in the environment, more simple than instincts, involve particular body parts and systems, involve the more primitive centers of the CNS Instincts  innate behaviors triggered by a broader range of events such as aging or change of seasons, involve movement of the organism as a whole (ex. migration), and involve higher level brain centers Learning  relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that results from experience Associative Learning  occurs when make connections between stimuli or events that occur together in an environment, central to all three basic learning processes Acquisition  when an organism learns to connect neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, growing the association between the stimuli Extinction  decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus, weakening the association between the stimuli (ring bell, but only you eat, not the dog) Spontaneous Recovery  the return of a previously extinguished conditioned response following a rest period Stimulus Discrimination  organism learns to respond differently to various similar stimuli such as knowing the difference between thunder and fireworks Stimulus Generalization  organism demonstrated the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimuli, not being able to tell the difference between fireworks and thunder Habituation  organism learns not to respond to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without change (ex. eventually becoming accustomed to background noise and tuning it out) Law of Effect  behaviors followed by something pleasant are more likely to be repeated, behaviors followed by something unpleasant are less likely to be repeated Primary Reinforcers  reinforcers with innate reinforcing qualities, they do not have to be learned ex. food, sleep, and shelter Secondary Reinforcers  reinforcers that do not have innate reinforcing qualities, but over time become reinforcers, such as money Learning: • Involves both conscious and unconscious experiences • Observational learning extends over both classical and operant conditioning Major people involved with different types of learning Classical conditioning (Pavlovian): • Organisms learn to associate events or stimuli that repeatedly happen together o Organisms also learn to anticipate events based on their association (lightening followed by thunder) • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): o Stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in an organism (meat to a dog) • Unconditioned Response (UCR): o Natural unlearned reaction to a given stimulus (dog salivates from meat) • Neutral Stimulus: o Stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response (bell rang before dog gets food) • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): o Stimulus that elicits a response after repeatedly being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (bell goes from neutral to conditioned) • Conditioned Response (CR): o Behavior caused by conditioned stimulus (dog salivating at sound of the bell) • Higher Order Conditioning/Second Order o When another conditioned stimulus is stacked on another (ex. dog knows bell means food, the drawer you keep it in squeaks, he knows squeaky drawer  bell  food) • Taste aversion is an example of this, you eat something, you get sick, whether or not it was the food you will now feel sick when you see it or smell it o Scientists think this is an evolutionary response to quickly learn to avoid harmful foods Behaviorism • John B Watson o Founder of behaviorism that argued if psychology was to become a legitimate science, it must be observable, not internal like Freud would say o Said that emotions can be conditioned too ▪ Experiment with the baby, white rat, and loud noises Operant Learning: • Organisms learn to associate events, a behavior, and its consequence Operant Conditioning • B. F. Skinner said classical conditioning is limited to existing reflexive behaviors, not new behaviors like riding a bike • Positive  adding something to the scenario • Negative  removing something from the scenario • Reinforcement  encouraging the behavior to continue • Punishment  encouraging the behavior to stop • Positive reinforcement  the most effective way to teach a person or animal new behaviors, something added to increase a behavior Shaping • Rewards given for behavior that is not the exact target behavior, done in an effort to coax the organism into doing the target behavior o Ex. teaching a dog to roll over, give treats for laying down, then treats for laying down and rolling to their back, but not just laying down, finally treat is only given when dog rolls all the way over, you are taking steps to achieve the target behavior Schedules of reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement  when an organism receives reinforcement every time a behavior is exhibited • Partial Reinforcement  organism does not receive reinforcement every time they exhibit the behavior • Variable Ratio  most powerful reinforcement schedule ex. gambling, might not win for an hour then you hit it big • Fixed Interval  most vulnerable to extinction because a response is expected at a known time, if it does not occur, why continue the behavior Cognitive and Latent Learning • Cognitive Map  mental picture of the layout of something like maze or streets • Latent Learning  learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until there is a reason to display it (ex. rats developed cognitive map of the maze, but only once food was provided at the end did they demonstrate their ability to navigate the maze) Observational learning • Learning from watching others and their behaviors and imitating them • Models  individuals performing the action that will be learned • Involves a choice, watching something and seeing the response will either cause you to learn and do nothing, learn and avoid or imitate, and in some cases things still need to be experienced on our own • Albert Bandura said there are 3 Observational Learning Models: o Live  something is demonstrated o Verbal  something is explained or told o Symbolic  the model can be fictional or real, from books, movies, TV, YouTube, etc. • Vicarious Reinforcement  seeing the model being positively reinforced for a behavior will cause you to desire to mimic that behavior o Opposite of vicarious punishment CHAPTER 7 Cognition  is thinking and it encompasses the processes associated with perception, knowledge, problem solving, judgement, language, and memory • Cognitive Psychology  field of psychology dedicated to examining how people think o Studies the interactions among human thinking, emotion, creativity, problem solving, and language o Cognitive psychologists attempt to determine and measure different types of intelligence and why some are better at certain tasks than others Concepts and Prototypes • Concepts  categories or groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, and memories (think concept cars, never actually produced for sale, just an idea for something drastically new) • Goldstone and Kersten  concepts act as building blocks that can be connected to countless combinations to create complex thoughts o Kind of like the big picture, concepts are used by the brain to keep information organized and accessible o Informed by our semantic memory (where facts and info are stored, names, state capitals, colors, etc.) o Natural Concepts  created naturally through direct or indirect experiences (ex. seeing snow vs seeing a picture you develop the concept that it is cold and white) o Artificial Concepts  defined by a specific set of characteristics (ex. shapes, triangle  always has 3 sides and 3 angles) • Prototype  best example or representation of a concept (like concept cars, if the car is developed produced to be tested it is a prototype) Schemata • Schema  mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts o a method of organizing information that allows the brain to work more efficiently o when a schema is activated the brain makes immediate assumptions about what is being observed • Role Schema  makes immediate assumptions about how individuals in a certain role will behave (ex. someone tells you they are a firefighter) • Event Schema (Cognitive Script)  set of behaviors that feels like a routine (ex. getting in an elevator, doors open, people come off, you get in, turn around, push a button) o Very automatic feeling with event schema and often hard to break these habits Language  communication system that involves using words, systematic rules to organize those words to transmit information • As we age it becomes harder to learn new languages Components of Language • Lexicon  refers to the words of a given language • Grammar  set of rules used to convey meaning through the use of lexicons • Phoneme  the different sounds that are used to make up words • Morphemes  smallest unit of language that conveys meaning • Semantics  process by which we derive meaning from words • Syntax  the order of words so that they form sentences • Overgeneralization  refers to application of rules of language to all language (ex. children do not understand that some words like goose are not made plural by adding s, this shows a basic understanding of language rules, but the need to further learning) Problem Solving Strategies Pitfalls to Problem Solving • Mental Set  persistently approaching a problem in a manner that has worked before, but clearly does not work now • Functional Fixedness  type of mental set, in which you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for • Anchoring Bias  focusing on one piece of information when solving a problem • Confirmation Bias  tendency to focus on information that confirms your existing beliefs • Hindsight Bias  leads you to believe an event you just experienced was predictable when really it was not • Representative Bias  unintentionally stereotype someone or something (ex. assuming all professors are boring and do nothing but read) • Availability Heuristic  type of heuristic in which you make a decision based on an example, information, or recent experience that is readily available to you Classifying Intelligence • Raymond Cattell  Crystalized Intelligence/Fluid Intelligence o Crystalized Intelligence  acquiring knowledge and being able to retrieve it o Fluid Intelligence  encompasses the ability to see complex relationships and solve problems • Triarchic Theory of Intelligence o Robert Sternberg said intelligence is made of 3 forms of intelligence o Practical Intelligence  street smarts, being able t
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