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Exam 1 Key Concepts.odt

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Michigan State University
ANP 201

Exam 1 Key Concepts: • Evolution Theory= Edward Tyson • The Father of Taxonomy= Linnaeus ◦ First to classify humans with other animals • Killing Feature: What separates an animal from the rest ◦ Humans was at first to lack a pre-maxel ◦ In fact humans have multiple killing features • Extinctions was first experienced with the Doh Doh Bird • Lamarckian believed that the environment would affect the future shape and organization of animals ◦ Acquired characteristics ◦ Ex. Giraffes with long necks • Lyell= Change occurs over vast time scale • Malthus= Nature selects by killing • Darwin= Reproduction of the fittest ◦ Variation is the norm in nature ◦ Adaptation • Agene is a trait but a trait isn’t necessarily a gene • There are 20Amino Acids • Codon= Three base pairs that code for an amino acid • Junk DNA(75-90% of all DNA) is never transmitted to mRNA. Only about 1% of all DNAis turned into a protein • DNAis replicated during mitosis • Meiosis: Reproduction ◦ Production of gametes • Hemoglobin: Short protein molecule ◦ 300 known Hemoglobin alleles • Diploid: Full set of 23 chromosomes pairs (46 total) ◦ Haploid: Half set of chromosomes (23 total) • ** Agenome is a complete compliment of genetic material from an individual • Mendel: Dominant and Recessive ◦ **Mendel's 2 Laws ▪ Segregation is random ▪ IndependentAssortment: Segregation of one trait is not dependent/contingent on the segregation of another (based on the Dihybrid crosses) • Polygenic traits are affected by more then one gene. • *Homeobox genes: translates into a protein sequence that binds to DNAand switches on and off the process of transcription. • Phenotypic variation is often based on the homeobox gene. • Most complex genes are not discrete, but are continuous ◦ Produced from an interaction of genes and environme
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