203 Study Guide: Exam 1
• ActivityArea:Ageneral term for a spatially bounded area within a place inhabited or used by
people where a particular task or tasks were carried out. Stuff may accumulate where activities
were carried out as people lose or simple dispose of material they no longer need or that is of no
• Anthropology: The holistic study of humanity. Whereas other social and behavioral sciences
tend to specialize in and focus on individual elements of human behavior, such as economics,
anthropology looks broadly at how human beings behave and how that behavior has evolved.
The examination of human physical evolution, ecultural evolution, adaptation, and language.
• Archaeology: The study of the material remains of human behavior.Archaeology is the sub
discipline of anthropology that focuses on the lives of past people through the analysis of the
things that they made, used, and then lost or discarded and that have fortuitously been
• Artifacts:And portable object made by human beings. For archaeological specimen to be an
artifact, it must have been intentionally made, not merely the accidental result of human
• Assemblage: The entirety or individual subsets of the material culture recovered at an
archaeological site or sites.All the artifacts or individual categories of artifacts. One can speak
of the artifact assemblage for a particular site and by that mean all the artifacts. Or, for example,
one can refer to the stone tool assemblage or ceramic assemblage, that is, the array of stone
tools or ceramic objects found at a site, in a region, or dating to a particular time period.
• Association: What is something found with? When things are found together, they generally
have something to do with one another (toothbrush and toothpaste)
• BiologicalAnthropology: Abranch of anthropology, the study of human beings, that focuses on
the biological aspects of our species.Among the topics investigated by biological
anthropologists are the biological evolution of human beings, the biological variations exhibited
by modern human beings, forensic anthropology, and primatology. Synonymous with physical
• Ceramic: Objects made of fired clay. Pottery, which usually implies a vessel or plate for
cooking, storing, or serving food, is a common end product of ceramic technology.
• Cultural Ecology: The study of interrelationships between human groups and their
environments. The cultural ecological approach views culture as an adaptive system.
• Cultural Resource Management (CRM): The study, preservation, and protection of
archaeological sites. Within this approach, the archaeological record is viewed as a non-
renewable “cultural” or historical resource that is worthy of our consideration. Much of the
archaeology currently conducted in the US is done under the auspices of federally mandated
• Culture History: Essentially what happened when in a given region.An outline of the major
cultural developments-adaptations, subsistence and settlement patterns, technological
innovation, culture contacts, and so on-over time. In most wo