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203 Study Guide- Exam 1.odt

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ANP 203

203 Study Guide: Exam 1 • ActivityArea:Ageneral term for a spatially bounded area within a place inhabited or used by people where a particular task or tasks were carried out. Stuff may accumulate where activities were carried out as people lose or simple dispose of material they no longer need or that is of no further use. • Anthropology: The holistic study of humanity. Whereas other social and behavioral sciences tend to specialize in and focus on individual elements of human behavior, such as economics, anthropology looks broadly at how human beings behave and how that behavior has evolved. The examination of human physical evolution, ecultural evolution, adaptation, and language. • Archaeology: The study of the material remains of human behavior.Archaeology is the sub discipline of anthropology that focuses on the lives of past people through the analysis of the things that they made, used, and then lost or discarded and that have fortuitously been preserved. • Artifacts:And portable object made by human beings. For archaeological specimen to be an artifact, it must have been intentionally made, not merely the accidental result of human activity. • Assemblage: The entirety or individual subsets of the material culture recovered at an archaeological site or sites.All the artifacts or individual categories of artifacts. One can speak of the artifact assemblage for a particular site and by that mean all the artifacts. Or, for example, one can refer to the stone tool assemblage or ceramic assemblage, that is, the array of stone tools or ceramic objects found at a site, in a region, or dating to a particular time period. • Association: What is something found with? When things are found together, they generally have something to do with one another (toothbrush and toothpaste) • BiologicalAnthropology: Abranch of anthropology, the study of human beings, that focuses on the biological aspects of our species.Among the topics investigated by biological anthropologists are the biological evolution of human beings, the biological variations exhibited by modern human beings, forensic anthropology, and primatology. Synonymous with physical anthropology. • Ceramic: Objects made of fired clay. Pottery, which usually implies a vessel or plate for cooking, storing, or serving food, is a common end product of ceramic technology. • Cultural Ecology: The study of interrelationships between human groups and their environments. The cultural ecological approach views culture as an adaptive system. • Cultural Resource Management (CRM): The study, preservation, and protection of archaeological sites. Within this approach, the archaeological record is viewed as a non- renewable “cultural” or historical resource that is worthy of our consideration. Much of the archaeology currently conducted in the US is done under the auspices of federally mandated CRM. • Culture History: Essentially what happened when in a given region.An outline of the major cultural developments-adaptations, subsistence and settlement patterns, technological innovation, culture contacts, and so on-over time. In most wo
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