Exam 1 Notes - Chaps 2,3,4,5.docx

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Department
Biological Science
Course
BS 181H
Professor
Dr.Trail
Semester
Spring

Description
FunctionsofWater1Hydrolysisreactionssuchas2CondensationreactionsspecificallydehydrationreactionssuchasaPeptidebondformationinproteinsbetweenaminoacidsbFormationoftriglycerides3IncompressibleitsvolumedoesnotsignificantlydecreasewhensubjectedtohighpressureUsefulfororganismsthatusewatertoprovidesupporttoorganismsbodiesstemsskinetc4WatereliminateswasteandtoxicchemicalsfromanimalsbodiesUrineproducedbythekidneysforexample5TakesconsiderableenergytoconvertwaterfromaliquidtoagasEvaporationhelpfulforcoolingoffonhotdays6HighspecificheatImportantforlargebodiesofwatertomaintainaconstanttemperatureaswellastomoderatelandtemperatures7CohesionstickstoitselfandnonneutralmaterialLubricatesorganlining8SurfacetensionCreatesasurfaceonthetopofwaterHomeforwaterglidershelpshumansfilllungswithairChapter3WhycarboniscoolFourelectronsinoutershellcanformfourcovalentbondsCanformbothpolarandnonpolarbondswhichmeansitcanserveasthebackbonetobiologicallyimportantmoleculesproteinscarbslipidsetcCCbondsstableoverarangeoftemperaturesIsomersStructuralcontainsameatomsbutindifferentbondingrelationshipsStereoisomersHaveidenticalbondingrelationshipsbuspatiallyarragneddifferentlyoEnantiomerMirrorimagesCarbohydratesCnH2OnMonosaccharaidesoGlucosefructosegalactoseoDLconformationsrightleftDisaccharidesoSucroseglucosefructosemaltoseglucoseglucoselactoseglucosegalactoseoConnectedbyaglycosidicbondPolysaccharidesoStarchmoderatelybranchedlesssolubleoGlycogenhighlybranchedBranchingcontributestosolubilityinanimaltissueslikemusclebecausebranchingcreatesamoreopenstructureinwhichmanyOHsidegroupshaveaccesstowaterandcanbondwithitoCelluloseunbranchedPlaysastructuralroleratherthanstoringenergyTheenzymesthatbreakfownbondsbetweenglucoseinstarchdonotrecognizetheshapemadebyglucosemonomersincelluloseandcanthereforebreakdownstarchwithoutbreakingdowncellulose
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