Exam 3 Study Guide.docx

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Department
Biological Science
Course
BS 181H
Professor
Dr.Trail
Semester
Spring

Description
BIO STUDY GUIDEProofreading is backwards3 to 5 Enzyme goes and makes sure all bases match up Removes nucleotides that arent accurately bound by polymerase Exonuclease Alternative splicing and slicing are differentStrand is the coding strand that will be replicated 5 GTAGCCTACCCATAGG 3coding strand broken3 CATCGGATGGGTATCC 5template strand for RNA5 GUAGCCUACCCUTUGG 3mRNA strandHow to read the chart st1 codonGUAValinend2 codonGCCAlaninerd3 codonUACTyrth4 CodonCCAProlineth5 codonUAGStopQuestion 3 Look at translation picture with A E and P sites P siteenteringAlways have 3 tRNA molecules at a timeWill always starts at AUG sequencePut in smooth strain and rough strain Rough strain has no encapsulated outside so can be killed by mouses immunity Killed one strain and put it iwith combination with live rough strains and found that mouse was still infected Genetic material was being transferred from one strain to the next which to which to infect the mouseHave to be able to tell which strain is the leading strand and which is the lagging strandPrimer needed for replicationLigase goes in and connects strands Transcription takes place at ribosome Open double helixTake DNA and add RNA nucleotide bases to form mRNA Know pre and post transcription and translation modifications Letters experiment Put DNA strand of a betaglobulin mixed with mRNA strand of betaglobulin If hadnt been spliced would have attached on top of each other But what happened washad mRNA strand down and found loops in the DNA strand proving that for the DNA sequences in the loop there was a spot missing the mRNA Cuts off loop and reattaches to form mRNABiofuelElectricity is much more effective and efficientMicrobiomeHave coevolved with other microorganisms symbioticallyMicrobiota diversity is influenced by topographical and temporal variation in the microbial communitiesInfluenced by complex interactions through life such as diet lifestyle disease and use of anitbioticsRelationship begins at birthskin mouth vagina intestinal23 of our microbiota is unique to usMicrobiota helps digest certain foods that the stomach and small intestine have not been able to digestProduces some vitamins B and KImmune systemforms a barrier effectCombats aggression from other microorganismsSpecializedJapanese can digest seaweed we cantPrionsSmall infectious protein that is abnormally foldedCauses progressive neurodegenerative conditionsAct as a template and incite other proteins to fold abnormally as wellAggregated to form Bpleated sheets forming amyloid plaque Common in cannibal socieites but also through bad meat feces blood urine Criteria for genetic materialoContain the information necessary to construct an entire organisms Blueprint for lifeoPass from parent to offspring and from cell to cell during cell divisionoAccount for the known variation within and between species That is contain information for nichespecific adaptationExperiments determining DNAoFrederick Griffiths work w Streptococcus and miceStrains of Streptococcus pneumoniae secrete with capsules and have colonies that look smooth and can cause fatal infections in miceStrains without capsule secretion have colonies that look rough and infections are not fatalHe injected heat killedS bacteria and Rbacteria into mouse causing the living type R cells to transform into virulent S cellsCalled transformationoTerm used today for introducing DNA into cells DNA from heatshocked Scells was transferred into the living type R bacteria passing the capsule trait Avery MacLeod and McCartyoUsed purification methods to reveal that DNA is the genetic materialoPurified Sstrain proteins RNA and DNA and added each to R strainsoOnly purified DNA could transform type RoPurified DNA might still contain traces of contamination that may be the transforming principleoAdded DNAse RNAse and proteases to ensure pure substancesoMixed the DNA extract with R bacteria
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