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Com 275 Exam 2 Review Guide

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Michigan State University
COM 275

lecture 10 • Triadic reciprocal causation- thought and behavior are determined by: • behavior • personal characteristics • environmental factors distinctly human traits four distinctly human traits • • symbolizing capacity • the ability to use symbols to transform experiences into cognitive models for the future (e.g. words) • self regulatory capacity • the ability to evaluate and motivate oneself • self reflective capacity • the ability to verify thoughts to see if they are right • vicarious capacity the ability to learn without experience • four self reflective models • logical model • verify using logical deduction • enactive model • verify by assessing consistency between perception and own experience to make sure thinking is correct • social model • verify based on comparison with other’s beliefs • vicarious model • verify based on the observing the experience of others and their outcomes observational learning and modeling • observational learning- a person can learn by observing the actions of others modeling- the reenactment of observed behavior • • 4 step process • attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation • abstract modeling- rules of previously learned behavior generate new behaviors in related situations • modeling creators both inhibitory and disinhibitory effects Effects of modeling • observing action that conflicts with established behavior • inhibitory effects- observation restraints a person from acting in a previously learned way • disinhibitory effects- observation weakens internal restraints on certain behavior • anti social effects cognitive, affective, behavioral • • prosocial effects • empathy, sharing Priming • priming occurs when media activates related thoughts stored in one’s mind • based on cognitive neoassociation • network of semantically related thoughts • stimuli trigger chains of mental activation models of priming • storage bin model • recently primed concepts are the strongest • storage battery model • frequently primed concepts are strongest synapse view model • • time determines strength- for a short time recent primes are more important- conceptual roots • cognitive neoassociation • network of semantically related thoughts and feelings • brain stores memories, thoughts, and scripts together • stimuli together a chain of mental activation • ex: apple--> fruit---> food---> hunger---->eat • mental models • dynamic representations of a situation, event, or object • mental models are time-bound but exist longer than network models Lecture 11 diffusion of innovations • diffusion • the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system innovation • • an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption • s-shaped curve • how innovation spreads through society starts slowly, then rapid growth, then stabilizes • Four Main Elements: • innovation • communication • social system • time successful innovation: • relative advantage compatibility • • complexity • trial ability • observability Steps in the diffusion/adoption process • knowledge • people become aware of the new idea • persuasion • individual weighs advantages • decision • final decision of adoption or rejection • implementation • put innovation into use confirmation • • seeks validation and evaluate consequences Adopter categories of diffusion • innovation early adopters • • early majority • late majority • laggards Conceptual roots and steps in diffusion and adoption • conceptual roots • imitation • social learning theory symbolic modeling • • steps in diffusion and adoption • knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation Lecture 12 Agenda Setting: • Media affects the importance placed on issues • two main areas of research • agenda setting • concerned with how the media agenda influences the public agenda • agenda building • concerned with how the media agenda and the public agenda influence the policy agenda Theory Refined • ongoing competition among people to gain the attention of media professional, the public, or policy elites Priming and framing a prime shapes info what we attend to • • a frame shapes how we understand and store it • attribute agenda setting and framing • 1st level agenda setting refers to issue salience • 2nd level refers to influence on perceptions of issues Frame building vs setting • frame building research • examines how news professionals or elites construct frames • frame setting research • examines effects of news frame on audiences • These effects include: • how audiences defines issues • attributions of cause perceived societal implications • • beliefs on how best to resolve the issue • framing can have more broadly felt influences lecture 13 • cultivation hypothesis • heavy views of TV begin to see the real world as more like the TV world • conceptual roots • symbolic interaction (through story telling) • mainstreaming • heavy TV viewers from diverse groups develop similar perceptions of the real world • resonance • when real world events support distorted image of reality shown on TV cultural indicators project institutional process analysis • • examines production, management, and distribution of messages • message system analysis • investigates images in content cultivation analysis • • compares heavy and light viewers assumptions and criticisms of cultivation • assumption • messages are uniform • viewing of tv is non selective • tv viewing is habitual • criticisms assumptions are false • • underlying processes are unspecified • concepts are hard to test theoretical bases for cultivation • cognitive paradigm • viewers learn then construct beliefs • availability heuristic accounts for TV’s impact recurrent images more available to
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