HNF 150 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Essential Amino Acid, Vitamin K, B Vitamins

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26 Feb 2020
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Course
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Proteins - 6 questions
Sustainability and organic - 4 questions
Food safety - 5 questions
Hunger - 6 questions (SNAP, WIC, plus more general questions)
Vitamins - 29 questions
o fat soluble - 15 questions
Vit D (2), Vit A & carotenoids (5), Vit K (3), Vit E (4)
o water soluble - 14 questions
Vit C (3), each B-vitamin 1-2 questions each
o 6 questions are on food sources for various vitamins, the other questions are
related to functions, deficiencies/toxicities, absorption, and other interesting facts
I brought special attention to in lecture.
Study Guide:
1. Describe the general structure of proteins and the three components of amino
acids: protein contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (unlike carbs and
lipids). The structure of proteins are amino acids linked together by peptide
bonds in long chains/ Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Amino acids
have a backbone made of an amine group (contains nitrogen), an acid group,
and a side chain. The side chain differs in size, shape, and electrical charge. The
side chain is what gives the amino acid its identity.
2. State how many essential amino acids exist and why adequate amounts of all the
essential amino acids are required for protein synthesis: There are 20 amino
acids and 9 are essential/indispensable. Adequate amounts of all the essential
amino acids are required for protein synthesis because if any of the 9 amino
acids is not present in sufficient amounts in our diet, protein synthesis will be
stopped and proteins will not be made. Cannot substitute., enzymes bind with
amino acids in ribosomes (protein synthesis)
3. Illustrate which factors differentiate proteins and the 7 roles of protein in the
body: Proteins differ by the sequence (peptide bonds join amino acids), shape
(they fold into different structures, coil up into helix, bundle up into different
shapes)
7 roles of proteins in the body:
1. Supporting growth and maintenance structural proteins- proteins in our
bones, muscle, skin
2. Building enzymes, hormones and other compounds
i. Enzymes speed up reactions in the body
ii. Peptide hormones chemical messengers
iii. Single AA’s as components of other compounds
ex: Tyrosine -> epinephrine ; tryptophan ->
niacin
3. Transport and recognition proteins
i. Lipoproteins: moves to cells
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ii. Active transport: when we are absorbing something
into cells it is mediated by proteins on the surface of cells.
These proteins with either allow in lipoprotein into the cell or
remove it
4. Building antibodies (immune-proteins)
5. Maintaining acid base balance
i. Blood proteins act as buffers
6. Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
i. Edema: fluid going out and not entering the tissues
correctly, and then not enter the capillaries. Can cause
swelling of feet
7. Energy and storage fat, glycogen
4.State the different paths an amino acid can take once it is in a cell:
Generate protein and muscle tissue
1. Build protein
2. Make another needed compound
3. Make another type of amino acid
4. Burned for energy
5. Convert to glucose and burned as energy or stored as glycogen
6. Convert to fat and burned for energy or stored in adipose tissue
4. Describe protein digestion and absorption from the mouth to the colon:
a. Mouth: chewing proteins into smaller bits and mixing with saliva to break
the food down
b. Stomach: chemical digestion. Acids uncoils protein strands and activates
stomach enzymes
c. Small intestine: pancreatic and small intestinal enzymes split polypeptides.
Then enzymes on the surface of the small intestinal cells hydrolyze these
peptides, and the cells absorb them
d. Large intestine: nothing happens, just passes through
e. Colon: excretes waste
5. Describe the purpose and how to conduct a nitrogen balance study
compares nitrogen excreted from the body with nitrogen ingested with food-
protein recommendations are based on nitrogen balance studies
a. BN = Nintake (Nurine + Nfeces + Nsweat + Nskin)
b. Positive N balance = growing children end each day with more bone,
blood, muscle, and skin cells than they had at the beginning of the day.
Also for pregnant women and bulking
c. Negative N balance = someone is losing muscle tissue and shedding
more muscle than they are taking on. Found in space or hospitalized
patients
d. N equilibrium = healthy, not trying to gain. Taking in what they need,
expending what they don’t need intake=excretion
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Can understand how much protein is being absorbed and excreted; however
much nitrogen is in the waste (urine, feces), that’s how much the person is not
using
If notirogen intake and nitrogen losses are equal, protein intake is adequate
6. Define mutual supplementation and be able to recognize vegetarian meal plans
that contain complementary proteins:
a. Mutual supplementation: complementary proteins that give us the 9 essential
amino acids- combining different food groups
b. In general, legumes provide plenty of the amino acid Ile and Lys but fall short in
Met and Trp. Grains have the opposite strengths and weakenes, making them a
perfect match for legumes
c. Helpful for vegetarians to eat a variety of whole foods that contain lysine,
threonine, methionine, and tryptophan: all plant proteins do contain some of
these
d. Complete/ high quality proteins come from animals. While incomplete/ low quality
proteins come from plants
e. High in fiber, iron, magnesium, zinc, and folic acid
f. Black beans, wheat, oat, or veggies. Meal plan is combine grains/nuts/seeds with
legumes/ beans. Combine grains/nuts/seeds with animal protein. Combine
legumes/bean with animal protein
g. Examples of complementary proteins: rice and black eyed peas, hummus on a
pita, grilled cheese sandwhich. Paste wih tomato sauce is NOT one of these!
7. List the symptoms/features and causes of two types of protein-calorie
malnutrition
a. Marasmus (chronic) = the extreme loss of muscle and fat. Found in areas of
famine, drought, and political unrest. Comes from extreme food and energy
deficiency. Child looks bone thin/anerexic
b. Kwashiorkor (acute) = energy sufficient, but protein deficient. Usually due to
High percent of calories from one staple food group with inadequate protein (exL
cassava) or like eating lots of rice. It could also be from weaning children on
insufficient formula or sugar water
i. Swollen/edema of belly and enlarged liver
8. Discuss reasons why consuming too much protein and amino acid supplements
is not recommended
a. Too much Animal proteins are highly associated with kidney disease (kidneys not
able to keep up with nitrogen excretion)
b. Diets rich in animal protein foods also contain saturated fat, and low in fiber
c. Emerging research on connection between animal foods and chronic disease-
diabetes, heart disease, and possible cancer connection
d. Possible association between diets high in animal protein and calcium loss
(bones)
1. Protein: contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Arranged as
strands of amino acids
2. amino acid: building blocks of proteins
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