For review, you are expected to know, define, and answer questions about:
Clines (clinal vs. populational model for human biological difference): Clinal-changes over geographical
space in terms of genetic frequencies, ex. Skin color, hair, eye color. Populational: no overlap or
inbetween, populations are distinct, people within certain populations have more genetic similarities but
this is not true it does not work for humans.
Ethnicity: Language, religion, region, history, ancestry, and/or physical traits, race= assumed biological
Race: in biology it does not apply to humans, we can still have the concept of race and it means two or
more populations that cannot interbreed. They have distinct characteristics that are not overlapping. We
interbreed a lot with other populations. Try to separate individuals into groups.
Problems with applying biological race to humans (why it doesn’t work for explaining human differences):
skull size to measure knowledge is irrelevant, we don’t define in systematic ways of how we characterize
Phenotype: physical traits, fingerprints, organs, observable characteristics
Genotype: genetic characteristics, DNA
Hypodescent: Race assigned by phenotype not genotype, genetically mixed people defined by less socially
dominnt race= hypodescent.
Problem: overlooks interracial, biracial, and multiracial individuals.
“Race” in Japan & Brazil (cross-cultural differences): Dominant image= racially homogeneous, substantial
minority population, Burakumin= descendants of a low-status social class. Genetically indistinguishable.
Mixed Japanese-Koreans are denied citizenship.
Brazil: Race= slight phenotypic differences. More than 500 distinct racial labels. Brazilian race more
flexible, money, prestige, one individual may “be” more than one race.
Achieved: You have control over, parts of identity that you make yourself.
Ascribed : Society tells you what you are, ex. Male, blonde
Sex: Includes the cultural and social aspects of being male, female, and intersex.
Gender: included the cultural and social aspects of being male, female, and transgender.
Dichotomy: Two things that are represented as being opposite or entirely different, non-overlapping
Intersex: Being born between both male and female, genital or hormonal
Gender role: Tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each gender.
Gender stratification: different levels of types of rewards for different genders, social inequality between
men and women… ex. Women make less than men still on average with the exact same qualifications “Third” and “fourth” Genders (ex. “Two-spirits”, Hwame &Alyha): Hijras, neither man nor woman, can’t
reproduce “Two spirted” Zuni man/woman- young boys take on feminine appearance, shaman
apprentice, leadership, “walks between”
Fourth: something beyond a third gender, some NativeAmericans had four genders
Hijras & Sworn Virgins: women socially become men
The Etoro (see Kottak): Have different beliefs about what is normal and abnormal sex, best type of sex is
culturally valued. Warrior and young boy is normal sex
Roberta Close (see Kottak): Brazilian sex symbol who had a sex change and straight men still adore her
anyways. Some of the expectations of sexuality is different in brazil. Straight and gay are different across
Hegemony: Operates by valuing certain patterns of behaviors over others, a form of power, not about of
force or physical punishment but through persuasion or desire. Persuading non dominant groups to want
what the dominant groups have. Can exist around sex or marriage, desire
Counter-hegemony: outside the norm, and expected view of a dominant group, ex. Same sex marriage
Religion & Gender (guest lecture by Georgia Beilmann)
Symbolism: Culture is a set of symbols that have a deep, shared meaning. Ritual is a way these symbols
Functionalism: Mary Douglas, contribution the field of religion, role of religion in society.
Cultural practices for sexuality may have a function that is adaptive. Strong interest in comparative
religion. Ritual, both religious and secular creates and controls experience.
Bisexuality: Has troubled researchers for many years
Heterosexism: policing differen