iss exam 2 review.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Michigan State University
Integrative Studies Social Sci
ISS 210

For review, you are expected to know, define, and answer questions about: Clines (clinal vs. populational model for human biological difference): Clinal-changes over geographical space in terms of genetic frequencies, ex. Skin color, hair, eye color. Populational: no overlap or inbetween, populations are distinct, people within certain populations have more genetic similarities but this is not true it does not work for humans. Ethnicity: Language, religion, region, history, ancestry, and/or physical traits, race= assumed biological basis Race: in biology it does not apply to humans, we can still have the concept of race and it means two or more populations that cannot interbreed. They have distinct characteristics that are not overlapping. We interbreed a lot with other populations. Try to separate individuals into groups. Problems with applying biological race to humans (why it doesn’t work for explaining human differences): skull size to measure knowledge is irrelevant, we don’t define in systematic ways of how we characterize race. Phenotype: physical traits, fingerprints, organs, observable characteristics Genotype: genetic characteristics, DNA Hypodescent: Race assigned by phenotype not genotype, genetically mixed people defined by less socially dominnt race= hypodescent. Problem: overlooks interracial, biracial, and multiracial individuals. “Race” in Japan & Brazil (cross-cultural differences): Dominant image= racially homogeneous, substantial minority population, Burakumin= descendants of a low-status social class. Genetically indistinguishable. Mixed Japanese-Koreans are denied citizenship. Brazil: Race= slight phenotypic differences. More than 500 distinct racial labels. Brazilian race more flexible, money, prestige, one individual may “be” more than one race. Achieved: You have control over, parts of identity that you make yourself. Ascribed : Society tells you what you are, ex. Male, blonde Sex: Includes the cultural and social aspects of being male, female, and intersex. Gender: included the cultural and social aspects of being male, female, and transgender. Dichotomy: Two things that are represented as being opposite or entirely different, non-overlapping Intersex: Being born between both male and female, genital or hormonal Gender role: Tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each gender. Gender stratification: different levels of types of rewards for different genders, social inequality between men and women… ex. Women make less than men still on average with the exact same qualifications “Third” and “fourth” Genders (ex. “Two-spirits”, Hwame &Alyha): Hijras, neither man nor woman, can’t reproduce “Two spirted” Zuni man/woman- young boys take on feminine appearance, shaman apprentice, leadership, “walks between” Fourth: something beyond a third gender, some NativeAmericans had four genders Hijras & Sworn Virgins: women socially become men The Etoro (see Kottak): Have different beliefs about what is normal and abnormal sex, best type of sex is culturally valued. Warrior and young boy is normal sex Roberta Close (see Kottak): Brazilian sex symbol who had a sex change and straight men still adore her anyways. Some of the expectations of sexuality is different in brazil. Straight and gay are different across countries. Hegemony: Operates by valuing certain patterns of behaviors over others, a form of power, not about of force or physical punishment but through persuasion or desire. Persuading non dominant groups to want what the dominant groups have. Can exist around sex or marriage, desire Counter-hegemony: outside the norm, and expected view of a dominant group, ex. Same sex marriage Religion & Gender (guest lecture by Georgia Beilmann) Symbolism: Culture is a set of symbols that have a deep, shared meaning. Ritual is a way these symbols are transmitted Functionalism: Mary Douglas, contribution the field of religion, role of religion in society. Cultural practices for sexuality may have a function that is adaptive. Strong interest in comparative religion. Ritual, both religious and secular creates and controls experience. Bisexuality: Has troubled researchers for many years Heterosexism: policing differen
More Less

Related notes for ISS 210

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.