ISS210-005 “Individual & Society” Review for Exam 3 Spring 2014 (Tetreault)
And the following films:
“Milking the Rhino”: Examines the relationship between the indigenousAfrican wildlife, the villagers who
live amongst the wildlife and conservationists who look to keep tourism dollars coming in. Both the Massai of
Kenya and the Ovahimba of Namibia have spent centuries as cattle farmers. With their lands being turned into
protected game reserves, these ancient tribes have turned to tourism as means of survival. They have to deal
with drought and starvation of their cattle. Stuck between the always-growing Western influence that wants
Africa to remain a place for sightseeing safaris and their own ancient cultures, the Maasai and Himba are at a
crossroads for cultural change.
“Kayapo: Out of the Forest”: Early in 1989 the Kayapo rallied other Brazilian Indians to attend a
reunification of the tribes ofAltamira- the proposed site of a massive hydro-electric dam, that will flood large
parts of the Xingu valley. The gathering also served as a media event as the Kayapo and their allies
demonstrated their case to the assembled international press. The film focuses on the Kayapo’s ability to
manipulate the media, including Chief rop-ni stage- managing his entrance to arrive with the pop star Sting.
However, much of the power of the film comes from the tension that revolves around the intricate planning
behind theAltamira meeting.AKayapo warrior, Pakayan, brings together previously hostile and warring
factions in a common cause. Tension mounts when, only days before the conference, he is rushed to the hospital
for major surgery, and must force himself from his hospital bed to ensure the survival of the alliance he has
ER: Contextual Components: Used ethnography of communication to analyze components of communication
events, emphasizing interrelationships among settings, participants, topics, and goals. Language is used by
speakers in conformity with cultrally shared expectations. Ethnographic-linguistic analysis of behavior.
ER Societal Segmentation: Linguistic variation is systematically interconnected with societal segmentation.
Group membership is often signaled by sharing linguistic styles and attitudes toward language use. Similarities
in linguistic performance not only reflect social solidarity but also contribute to maintaining solidarity, just as
linguistic divergence transmits and reinforces segmentation.
And information pertaining to lectures and in-class discussions, as well as the following terms and concepts:
For review, you are expected to know, define, and answer questions about:
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: differences in the way languages encode cultural and cognitive categories affect the
way people think, so that speakers of different languages will tend to think and behave differently depending on
the language they use.
Whatever language you speak, shapes your reality somehow
Linguistic Competence: When you know a language you know linguistic competence. You know the
underlying rules of the language and often the unconscious or “hidden knowledge”.
Phonology: Knowledge of the sounds of language including how to produce them and how to combine them.
Ex. Word scramble: “gisnt”
Morphology: Knowledge of which sounds have meaning in language. Ex. “Ihavetogohomeearly” or “s” “ly”
Syntax: Knowledge of how sentences are formed in a language. Ex. “Up pick me you eight at.” Semantics: Ability to determine the meaning of a sentence. Ex. “I like chocolate cakes and pies.” “John is
unmarried. John is a bachelor.”
Human Language: Learned, symbolic: arbitrary symbols, productive: human language is infinite,
displacement: you can talk about things that are not present or with you.
**Arbitrary symbol means that there is no natural link between the symbol and what it stands for.Arbitrary
symbols such as sounds, letters, and words are the building blocks of the human language.
Animal Communication: Bee “language”- genetic, not learned. Birdcalls and sounds- limited number of
sounds, often sex specific behavior, and “stimulus dependent”.
**Zebra finches study: isolated generation had abnormal song. They were paired with birds in isolation. By 4 th
generation, song evolved to wild type.
**Prairie dogs: Calls are complex (pitch tracking), refer to distinct referents in environment, different calls elicit
different responses, concluded on a prairie dog language. Ex. Detect whether the intruder is male or female,
whether he has a gun or not, what the intruder is wearing, etc.
**Human language is group specific: each linguistic community has its own language. Primate call systems are
species specific. There are little to no variation between communities of the same species.
Characteristics of human language:
Learned- We learn language from models. Ex. Bees from one part of the world to another, won’t learn each
other’s dances because it is genetic.
Symbolic- Anything that stands for something else. Ex.Aflag for a nation.Acrown for royalty. Refer to
arbitrary symbol definition above. Ex. Chair in multiple languages, no actual relationship to the thing
Productive- Capacity to generate new expressions. Human language is infinite, allows us to be productive and
gets things done.
Displacement- You can talk about a dolphin even if it is not present or you have never seen one before.
Characteristics of animal call systems- **Refer to bee language, birdcalls and sounds, zembra finshes, and
prairie dog information above. They occur in the wild. Ex. Vervet Monkey, 3 alarms: eagles, pythons, leopards.
Sociolinguistics and LinguisticAnthropology: basic differences
Linguistics: The study of language structures. When you know a language you know linguistic competence.
You know the underlying rules of the language and often unconscious or “hidden knowledge”.
Sociolinguistics: The study of language variation in a speech community motivated by gender, class, and
ethnicity. The goal here is to examine and reveal the link between language (especially linguistic variation) and
social groups based on socioeconomic class, ethnicity, and gender.Another goal is to document and argue for
the validity of non-standard linguistic styles and dialects.
Speech Community: Community that shares norms for how and when to use particular styles of language. Ex.
Go green, go white
**Difference in speech communities: “the speech community has allowed sociolinguists to demonstrate that
many linguistic phenomena…are in fact socially structured. Labov 1966 showed that the linguistic
heterogeneity of New York City can be quantitatively analyzed as the patterning of a single speech
community…based on sociological variables such as age, social class, and gender.” (