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Integrative Studies Social Sci
ISS 225
Patricia Molloy

Shaping Teach behaviors not already known, reinforce for successive approximations, slowly are shaped to learning behaviors. Albert Bandura - Studied aggression in kids. Said that conditioning and Observational reinforcement too simplistic to explain how kids learn. Conducted Bobo Learning doll experiment. When adult was punished kids were less aggressive than the control and vice versa. All children learned the aggressive behavior to some extent Wild Rhesus monkeys fear snakes, lab-reared monkeys don't. Animals Mineeka's Study required to reach over cage containing snake to get food. Lab-reared of Fear Learning monkeys initially reached over snake but observed fearful wild monkeys and acquired fear of snakes observationally. Learning occurs without reinforcement, but is only visible with reinforcement. 3 groups of rats learn maze: reinforce regularly, never Latent Learning reinforce, and reinforce on day 11. Group reinforced on day 11 are able to catch up to regular reinforcement group. Karpicke and Roediger study on Swahili-English word pairs (4 different Test enhanced groups) Time to learn word list did not vary by group. Performance one learning week later revealed that additional study did NOT benefit but additional testing DID. High # recalled study and test all material. Low # recalled study all items  The processes by which we observe, store, and then recall any What is memory? information. It can be conscious or unconscious/automatic. Automatic ex. knowing what song comes next on a CD Encoding - information first encountered  Storage - intermediate stage where information is present, but is not 3 Stages of being encoded or retrieved (we know storage occurs, but its not studied in memory detail. Process in which you try to maintain info in your mind.) Retrieval - Information is remembered or used Important Duration Characteristics of Capacity memory Effects of encoding  Example of superior memory: Stephen Wiltshire: Human camera Information (Basic) sensory input --> sensory memory --> short term memory --> long processing model of memory term memory Holds the perceptual information taken in. VERY short duration, high capacity, but not fully known. Iconic (visual) memory lasts less than one Sensory memory second. Echoic (auditory) lasts less than 10. Sperling discovered that subjects recall about 4 items, but must have had available all 12 items in their sensory memory. Partial report technique - SS Limited duration and limited capacity to store information. George Miller discovered STM capacity is 7+/- 1 items and fades after 15-30 seconds in Short Term unrehearsed. Chunking helps! It is any meaningful unit. Can be a single Memory letter, group of letters, or group of words. STM involves rehearsal. Maintenance - repeat information. Elaborative - relate information to other knowledge. STM storage increases until old age. Typical finding is that there is almost no interference between verbal and visual STM loads. Due to both decay and interference Proactive - old information interferes with ability to store new info STM Forgetting Semantic proactive interference - information of same category is more likely to interfere with your ability to remember items in a list Retroactive - new information interferes with retrieval and old info Decay - loss of information over time More recent version of the STM (more active than STM processing) 3 components 1. Central executive - coordinates activity of the slave systems. (Helpful for retrieval strategies, chunking, activation of LTM, and suppression of Working memory interfering items. It is the most complex and least understood part of working memory) 2. Phonological loop - speech, words, numbers, 3. Visuospatial sketchpad - visual and spatial material Representation of facts, images, actions, and skills that may persist over a lifetime. Involves retrieval of information, and is theoretically limitless in Long Term capacity. Memory requires attention. Our perceptual systems are limited Memory in the amount of information that can be attended to at a given point in time. We cannot pay attention to every aspect of our world and we can only remember the information that we attend. (Capacity limitations) Serial position effect Primacy effect - we remember items at the beginning of the list better than items in the middle. Due to increased rehearsal for early items and is more likely to be transferred to LTM Stage theory of memory Recency effect - we remember items at the end of the list better than items in the middle. Thought to be due to the fact that items are still in working memory Supports theory of STM vs LTM Primacy reflects LTM recency reflects STM Declarative memory - memory for facts, information and events ...Semantic - generic knowledge of facts Types of LTM ...Episodic - memories of specific events - autobiographical Procedural/nondeclarative memory - memory for skills, habits, and conditioning Organization - We are more likely to remember information that is organized in such a way that is meaningful and tied to existing knowledge. (Mnemonic devices and dual encoding)  Depth of processing - focusing on the meaning of information as opposed to physical characteristics, results in better storage. (Semantic - does the word fit into the sentence? phonological/acoustic - does the word rhyme with cat? orthographic/visual - is the word printed in capital letters?) Massed vs. distributed practice - the spacing effect: if we review material Factors that repeatedly over time, we are more likely to remember it later than if we affect the review material repeatedly in a short time. storage of LTM Emotion - highly emotional material is remembered better than non- emotional material State dependent learning - remembering is affected by both encoding and retrieval conditions. Memory is best if conditions of encoding and retrieval are the same. Emotional state or state of consciousness, drugs.  Context dependent learning - remembering is affected by both encoding and retrieval conditions. Memory is best if context at encoding and retrieval are the same. Memory occurs best when studying and test is in the same environment. Memory can be primed. Reconstruction - what we remember is not a simple " movie of our past. (1) Memory is a combination of recollection of information and our world knowledge and expectations. (2) Combination can lead to increased accuracy, but also distortion (a) schemas - basic knowledge structures that we tie together with memory fragments when remembering. (3) Loftus misinformation effect (a) study - participants saw Memory film of a two car accident (b) misinformation - estimate speed of cars accuracy/ when cars "smashed" into each other (41 mph) or "hit" each other (34 distortion mph) (c) one week later: did you see broken glass? "Hit" 14% "smashed" 32% (4) Creating false memories in a lab - subjects asked to recall 3 real events and one false (being lost in a shopping mall) (5) Do false memories have behavioral consequences? Suggested a given food made the participants ill. The participants then decrease their self-reported preference for that food and ate less of it. Eyewitness memory - mistaken eyewitness ID is number one cause of known false convictions, claim is 2000 wrongful convictions a year. Relevance to Innocence project - nonprofit dedicated to overturning wrongful criminal justice convictions using DNA to prove innocence. Factors affecting eyewitness system memory - passage of time, familiarity of subject, race of witness and suspect, weapons focus. Time decreases accuracy in testimony and but does not decrease confidence. Associated with high confidence Flashbulb Exceptionally strong memories, likely due to emotional activation of memories memory during encoding and even recall. Prone to distortion - frequent re-telling of events, similar stories across other individuals ▯ ▯ Rate of forgetting - ebbinghaus forgetting curve - we forget most of what Forgetting and we learn in the first hour and the rate drops off after time failure of LTM Permastore - if we remember something for 5 years we are likely to remember it forever. Failure to encode - failure to put material into LTM, common in forgetting people’s names.  Decay - fading of memory through disuse  Retrieval failure - inability to find the necessary memory cue for retrieval Forgetting Causes (tip of the tongue)  Interference - confusion or entanglement of previous memories (proactive old interferes with new) (retroactive new interferes with old) Motivated forgetting  - repression of memories, usually to avoid dealing with traumatic experiences Retrograde - memory loss for events prior to amnesia. Typically only short period, not very common. Anterograde - memory loss for events after amnesia. Inability to form new memories. Amnesia Patient H.M. - most studied case of human learning and memory. Profound amnesia - anterograde and some retrograde. STM up to fifteen minutes Hippocampus - involved with declarative memory but not procedural memory, important for spatial memory ex. London taxi drivers 1. Failure to recall events from the recent past 2. Frequently disoriented in time/place and suffer severe anterograde Korsakoffs amnesia syndrome 3. Often claim nothing is wrong and confabulate (fill in gaps of time that they don't remember) 4. Result of thiamine deficiency common in severe alcoholics Subjective experience of
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