KIN 310 Study Guide - Final Guide: Tap Water, Eating Disorder, Disordered Eating

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26 Feb 2020
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Department
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Professor
21 Things that are highlighted are on the exam according to the professor <- god bless
your soul
(Minerals, Energy Balance, Obesity, Dieting and Eating Disorder, Physical Activity and Sports
Nutrition, Nutrition for Pregnancy and Newborns, Nutrition for Older Infants and Children)
Quizlet on learning objectives (okay i think i have everything now!)-
https://quizlet.com/288321196/hnf-150-exam-3-flash-cards/
https://quizlet.com/_4shcvc - these are mostly just the highlighted info
Do we have to know everything for all the minerals we talked about or no? Because the
learning objectives say only to know like 9 or 10 of them and skipped a few.
We only need to know the ones in learning objectives for this exam. YES
Tap water and bottled water is not on the exam? As well as hard/soft water?
They are on the exam :(
Do we need to know toxicity for minerals? Thought it was just deficiencies?
Exam 3: 50 questions
Water and major minerals (Ca,Na,K,Mg): 16 questions
Trace minerals (Fe, I, Zn, Se): 10 questions
wait are those the only
4 we need to know? ← ←
Energy Balance and Eating Disorders: 11 questions
Sports Nutrition: 3 questions
Nutrition and Pregnancy/Lactation/Child feeding: 10 questions
Are the minerals listed ^^ the only ones we need to memorize
information on??!!
Water and Minerals
Required Reading:
Sizer: Chapter 8 BB- Chapters 14 and 15; check REALLY HELPFUL STUFF
Learning Objectives
Water:
1. Describe the major roles of water.
Acts as a solvent to dissolve solutes
carries nutrients and waste
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participates in chemical reactions
lubricant around joints
shock absorber
body temperature regulation
2. -Identify the causes, signs and symptoms of dehydration.
Causes- Not drinking enough fluids, Diuretics (alcohol, caffeine), Eating lots of
salt and sugar.
Symptoms:
Moderate: Thirst, Dry mouth, Dry skin, Fatigue, Decreased urine output,
Deep yellow urine, Headache, Dizziness
Severe: Blood pressure decreases, weak rapid irregular pulse, Rapid
shallow breathing, Bluish lips and fingertips, Confusion, shock, Seizure,
Coma, Death, pale skin
3. Recall how water is regulated in the body
The brain and kidneys regulate water
-The hypothalamus regulates thirst, salivary glands detect blood concentration, when it’s too
(concentrated or dehydrated) low(?) we get thirsty.
- hypothalamus signals a hormone from the pituitary gland
- kidneys retain as much water as possible, urine is yellow because of this (Yellow color is due to
the chemical compound urea and color varies on urea concentration)
4. Recognize the sources of water input and output
a. Input: fluids (most), foods, water created by metabolism
b. Output: skin, lungs (respiration), kidneys (most), feces
5. Recognize the differences between soft and hard water
Hard water -more minerals overall than soft water (especially Ca and Mg)-About 85% of water
in US-Leaves deposits
Soft water -less minerals than hard water. Contains mostly Na, maybe K-Easier on appliances
and pipes-Not as palatable
6. Compare the safety regulations of tap and bottled water
Water
Type
Disinfection
required?
Confirmed
E.coli/
Coliform
banned?
Testing
frequently
for bacteria?
Must filter for
pathogens/viruses?
Test
frequently for
organic
chemicals?
Bottled
Water
No
No
1/week
No
1/year
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Tap
Water
Yes
Yes
Hundreds/
month
Yes
1/quarter
Terms/Concepts:
1. Solvent- liquid in which the solute is dissolved in
2. Water balance- describes flow of water in and out of system
3. Dehydration- dryness resulting from excretion of water
4. Diuretic- causing passing of urine (caffeine and alcohol), Increased water loss/output
5. Electrolytes- compounds that separate into ions within water and are able to conduct an
electric current
6. Ions- charged particles
7. Hyponatremia- water pulled into cells, causing them to swell, less sodium outside the cell so
water follows concentration of solutes and flows into the cell where there is more solutes (NA)
this causes the cell to swell.
Minerals:
1. Recognize the roles of minerals in maintaining fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base
balance. Minerals form salts that dissolve in the body and direct where water goes because
water follows salt. They separate into electrically charged particles called ions. To control
the flow of water, the body moves these electrolytes from one body compartment to
another to keep a proper balance. Mineral salts also serve as a buffer to help control pH
level, allowing all life processes to occur.
Cofactors to assist enzymes- Mg, Se, Cu
Components of body compounds- Fe
Transmission of nerve impulses and cell signals- Na, Ca, K
Water balance- Na, K, Ca, P
Body growth- Ca, P
Roles at cellular, tissue, organ, and whole body levels
2. State components of food that increase and decrease bioavailability and absorption,
and general characteristics of transport of minerals
VITAMIN C: enhances iron absorption
GASTRIC ACIDITY: HCl makes minerals more bioavailable by converting it to
a form that’s more easily absorbed
VITAMIN D: enhances calcium, phosphorus and magnesium absorption.
PHYTIC ACID: in some whole grain, fibers and legumes can bind strongly to
some minerals.
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