KIN 345 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Coronary Artery Disease, Fitbit, Exercise Intensity

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26 Mar 2020
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KIN 345 Study Guide
Exam 1 (Individual level influences on physical activity)
Intro to SEM/Intro to individual level
o London bus drivers study results- Study comparing coronary heart
disease (CHD) in middle aged men, Conductors (physically active
jobs) have lower risk of CHD than drivers
o Reasons for population-level changes in physical activity/obesity
Less energy expenditure at work and home
Technology improvement
fast food, serving sizes
o 4 Core assumptions of ecological models
Behavior is influenced by multiple factors
Influences interact across different levels
Ecological models are behavior specific
Effective behavior change requires multi-level interventions
o Key features of K-State social ecological framework
Multiple factors at different levels influence physical activity
behaviors
Individual interventions will not work well when
environments are not supportive
Community interventions will not work well when individuals
are not targeted
Attention to how social groups are afforded different access to
physical activity resources must be addressed in order to
promote physical activity for all
o Influences at each level of social ecological model
Individual- self-perceptions, motivation
Interpersonal- family, peers
Setting- Schools, worksites
Community- Access to facilities, safety, legislation/policies
Sociocultural- age, gender, race, socio economic status
o Advantages/disadvantages of behavior change programs targeting
individuals
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Stages of change
o What are the stages of change?
Pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action,
maintenance
o What characteristics define individuals in each stage?
Pre-contemplation- Do not do physical activity and do not
intend to start in the next 6 months
Contemplation- Do not do physical activity but do intend to
start in the next 6 months
Preparation- Participate in some physical activity but not at
the levels of the American College of Sports
Medicine/American Heart Association (30min of moderate
intensity physical activity on 5 or more days a week, or 20
minutes of continuous vigorous exercise at least 3 days per
week
Action- Have done recommended amounts of physical activity
but have done so less than 6 months
Maintenance- Have done recommended amounts of physical
activity for 6 months or longer
o Examples of stage-matched strategies
Long term health benefits
Giving options of how to incorporate PA in daily lives
Looking into exercise programs
Set goals and reflect
Change routine
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Motivation
o Decisional balance Pros/Cons & A PRINCIPLE
Immediate Consequences- negative usually out weigh the
positive
Delayed consequences- positive long term out weigh the
negative
Hedonic principle: A person will choose to maximize a
positive outcome over a negative one
o Definition/example of an outcome expectation
Definition of outcome expectation- an expectation that a
specific outcome will follow a given behavior
“Exercise will help me lose weight.” (instrumental)
“Exercise will help me manage stress.” (affective)
o Relationship between outcome expectations and physical activity
(including false hope syndrome)
Generally perceived benefits will positively influence someone
to be more PA
False hope syndrome- having positive expectations, but
having a negative effect on behavior because maybe you are
not seeing results of weight loss, unrealistic expectations
o Affective vs. instrumental outcome expectations
Affective (immediate)- involves feeling states derived from
exercise experiences (enjoyment, stress relief, satisfaction)
Instrumental (Long-term) not feeling states like improve
appearance, reduce heart disease
o Results/implications from Segar et al. “Rebranding exercise”
study
Superordinate goals related to health are associated with less
exercise than those trying to improve daily quality of life
o Autonomous vs. controlled motivation
Autonomous is a fundamental human need to do something
by themselves (determined to do something alone) while
controlled motivation is feeling pressured or demanded from
external forces to behave a certain way
o Autonomous- considered for long-term maintenance
Increase by
providing meaningful rationale (help them this is why
you should value) for the behavior
acknowledge individual’s feelings and perspective
emphasize choice and minimize control
o Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation- behavior is performed for satisfaction
and enjoyment it provides
NO external incentives
Nurtured by providing choice
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