KIN 345 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Moral Disengagement, Negative Approach, Moral Development
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KIN 345: Exam 2 Fill in SG
Character Development (Lecture 8: Chapter 24)
Morality in Sport
__________ ____________: requires that all participants understand and adhere not only to the formal rules of the game but
also to the spirit of cooperation and unwritten rules of play necessary to ensure that a contest is fair.
________________________: involves four interrelated virtues: compassion, fairness, good sporting behavior, and integrity.
______________ ___________________ _____________________: Concern and respect for the rules and officials, social
conventions, and the opponent, as well as one’s full commitment to one’s sport and the absence of a negative approach
Other Key Definitions
Moral (character) ________________________: The process of experience and growth through which a person develops the
capacity to morally reason.
Moral _________________________: The decision process where rightness or wrongness of a course of action is determined.
Moral ________________________: The execution of an act that is deemed right or wrong.
Approaches to Character Development
________________ ______________________ Approach: Moral development is the extent to which an individual’s behaviors
conform to social conventions and norms.
• Developed through modeling, reinforcement, and social comparison.
________________________ ______________________ Approach: Moral development is an individual’s tendency to behave
in accordance with her or his most mature reasoning patterns. (series of stages)
• Piaget, Kohlberg, Hann, Rest
• Ability to reason depends on cognitive development
• Developed through dilemma. Dialogue, and balance
Levels of Moral Reasoning:
• Level 1: ___________________ control- it’s okay as long as I am not caught
• Level 2: An ____________________________ orientation- it is okay to do it if it’s done to me first
• Level 3: The “________________________” or “altruistic view”- treat others like you would like to be treated
• Level 4: Following ____________________ ______________ and regulations
• Level 5: What is best for all involved
_________________________ Morality: The suspension of ethics during athletic competition.
• Operate at lower level of moral reasoning than capable of or would normal outside of sport.
Moral __________________________: The condition endorsement of transgressive acts.
• Moral disengagement mechanisms help bypass guilt:
o Moral ___________________________ → helps me support my family
o ____________________ labelling → “letting off steam”
o Advantageous _______________________ → it’s not as bad as…
o Displacement of _____________________ → coach told me to
o ____________________ of responsibility → everyone does it
o Distortion of ___________________________ → he isn’t hurt that bad
Moral _______________________: Required participants to decide what is morally correct or incorrect.
Strategies for Enhancing Character Development
• ___________________ good sporting behavior
• Reinforce and _____________________ those behaviors
• Model _________________________ behaviors
• Explain why certain behaviors are ____________________________
• Discuss moral_______________________ and choices
• Build moral dilemmas and choices into ______________________
• Teach___________________________ learning strategies
• Create a ___________-orientated motivational climate and support _____________________ of athletes
• Transfer power from _____________________ to participants
Competition and Cooperation (Lecture 9: Chapter 5)
a. _________________________: social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their
performance compares with the performances of others during same task.
b. ________________________: social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms
of collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a goal.
II. The competitive Process
a. Stage 1: _________________________competitive situation is a situation in which performance is compared
with some standard of excellence in presence of at least one other person who is aware of comparison.
b. Stage 2: _________________________competitive situation is how a person perceives, accepts, and appraises
objective competitive situation.
c. Stage 3: ____________________ is whether a person approaches or avoids an objective situation.
d. Stage 4: _______________________is athletes response as compared to the given competitive standard.
Reflected in success and failure by athletes.
_________________ anxiety: disposition to perceive objectively nonthreatening circumstances as threatening, responding with
disproportionate state anxiety. (stable)
_________________ anxiety: feelings of nervousness, worry, and apprehension associated with arousal of body at particular
point in time.
a. _______________________: worries and negative thoughts
b. _______________________: perceived physiological arousal (stress associated)
III. Competition and cooperation as complementary concepts
a. Competition and cooperation are __________ polar opposites
b. Competition and cooperation ______________________ one another
IV. Attributes related to both competition and cooperation: “Tying the two together”
a. Sense of _____________________
b. Strong ______________ ethic
c. Use of resources
d. A strong _________________________ ethic
e. ________________ of challenge and change
f. Great ________________________
V. Enhancing Cooperation: General Principles of Cooperative Games
a. Maximize ________________________
b. Maximize opportunities to ________________ sport and movement skills
c. Do not keep ________________
d. Maximize opportunities for _________________
e. Give ______________________ feedback
f. Provide opportunities for youngsters to play different ________________________
VI. Importance of Unstructured Play
a. Generally ______________ centered, while organized competitive sport is ___________ centered
b. Allows ____________ to make decisions, manage relationships with peers, learn life lessons.
c. Characterized by action, especially __________________; personal involvement in play; closely matched
d. Efforts need to be made to make it _______________ centered, skill development focused, fun, and personal
Motivation (Lecture 10: Chapter 3)
I. Definitions and Major Questions
a. ______________________: The direction (choice/frequency) and intensity (effort and persistence/intensity) of
effort. [Motivation as an outcome]
II. Views of Motivation
a. Participant or __________________-centered view: Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual
b. ________________________-centered view: Motivation level is determined primarily by situation.
c. ________________________ view: Motivated behavior results from the interaction of participant factors and
III. Participation Motives
a. Sport Participation motives: ______________________, ________________________, ____________________.
b. Exercise Participation motives
i. Joining: ________________________, ________________________, ________________________.
ii. Continuing: ________________________, ________________________, _____________________.
a. ______________ __________________________ Theory (not discussed in lecture)
i. An interactional view that considers both personal and situational factors as important predictors of
behavior. Five components make up this theory: personality factors or motives, situational factors,
resultant tendencies, emotional reactions, and achievement-related behaviors.
b. ____________________________ Theory
i. Focuses on how people explain their successes and failures. Thousands of possible explanations for
success and failure can be classified into a few categories. The most basic attribution categories are
stability (a factor to which one attributes success or failure is either fairly permeant or unstable), locus of
causality (a factor is either external or internal to the individual), and locus of control (a factor either is
or is not under the individual’s control).
ii. Attributions and _____________________ Motivation