KIN 345 Study Guide - Final Guide: High Intensity Training, Overtraining, Staling

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FINAL THIRD, INFORMATION ON FINAL
Overtraining and Burnout (CH.21)
I. Overtraining: a purposeful phase of a training cycle designed to present maximal training stress,
and, in turn, maximize training adaptions in an athlete. (Short cycle)
II. Periodized training: is the deliberate strategy of exposing athletes to high-volume and high-
intensity training loads that are followed by a lower training load, known as the rest or taper stage.
III. Staleness Syndrome: a detrimental response to overtraining, characterized by a decrease in
performance that does not improve with rest or reduced training.
IV. Kenetta, Hassmen, & Raglin (2001)
a. Purpose: determine the incidence and nature of staleness syndrome
b. Results:
i. 37% experienced staleness
ii. Incidence higher for individual sports
iii. Average episode= 7 weeks
iv. 41% of stale athletes reported motivation loss
v. Only 20% devoted 5+ hours a week to an activity other than their sport
c. Conclusion: staleness as a widespread problem
V. Burnout: A psychological emotional, and sometimes physical withdrawal from an activity in
response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction
a. Characterized by:
i. emotional & physical exhaustion: exhaustion takes form of lose energy, interest, and
trust
ii. sport devaluation & depersonalization: individual becomes impersonal and unfeeling
iii. reduced sense of personal accomplishment: often visible in low job productivity or a
decreased performance level
VI. Cognitive-Affective Stress Model: reflects idea that nothing is either good or bad, but thinking
make it so. People differ in how they respond to prolonged stress in sport and exercise settings.
a. Situational factors:
i. Team climate
ii. Training load
iii. Role ambiguity
iv. Performance
v. Social support
b. Cognitive appraisal: perceived ability to meet demands of situation
c. Personality/motivational factors:
i. Perfectionism
ii. Type A
iii. External locus of control
iv. High trait anxiety
v. Low self-perceptions
vi. “other-oriented”
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vii. Coping skills
d. Responses and behavioral outcomes:
i. Mood shifts
ii. Negative self-talk
iii. Lack of concentration
iv. Exhaustion
v. Performance decline
vi. Illness/injury
vii. Difficulties w/ relationships
viii. Withdrawal
VII. Negative-Training Stress Response Model
a. Explains that burnout focuses more on responses to physical training, although it recognizes the
importance of psychological factors. Suggests that physical training stresses the athlete
physically and psychologically and it can have both positive and negative effects.
VIII. Unidimensional Identity Development and External Control Model
a. More sociological. Argues that stress is a symptom. Real cause of burnout, especially in youth,
related to social organization of high-performance sport and its effects on identity and control
issues. Structure of highly competitive sport does not allow youngsters to develop a normal
identity.
IX. Commitment and Entrapment Theory
a. Burnout in the context of sport commitment. Athletes commit to sport for three reasons:
because they want to participate, because they believe they have to participate, or both.
Athletes who are prone to burnout feel “entrapped” by sport when they do not really want to
participate in it but believe they must maintain their involvement.
X. Self-Determination Theory
a. 3 basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence & relatedness. When those needs are met
a person’s motivation and psychological well-being are maximized and a person is less likely to
burnout.
XI. Gould, Tuffey, Udry & Loehr (1996)
a. Purpose: identify critical variables in the sport burnout process
b. Physical concerns (12%): physical problems, poor play
c. Logistical concerns (13%): time demands of tennis, travel concerns, adjusting to school
d. Social/interpersonal concerns (24%): dissatisfaction with social life, negative parental influence,
dissatisfaction with those involved
e. Psychological concerns (51%): unfulfilled/inappropriate expectations, lack of enjoyment,
motivational concerns, personality not conductive to competitive tennis
XII. Raedeke & Smith (2001)
a. Purpose: examine correlates of the burnout syndrome
XIII. Treating and preventing burnout
a. Monitor critical states in athletes
b. Communicate
c. Foster an autonomy-supportive coaching style
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d. Set short-term goals for competition and practice
e. Take relaxation (time-out) breaks
f. Learn self-regulation skills
g. Keep a positive outlook
h. Manage post competition emotions
i. Stay in good physical condition
Introduction to Psychological Skills Training (CH.11)
I. What is PST?
a. The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills for the purpose of
enhancing performance, increasing enjoyment, or achieving greater self-satisfaction
b. Critical to consistent performance and mental toughness
II. Four C model of mental toughness
a. Control is handling many things at once and remaining influential rather than controlled
b. Commitment is being deeply involved with pursuing goals despite difficulties
c. Challenge is perceiving potential treats as opportunities for personal growth and thriving in
constantly changing environments
d. Confidence is maintaining self-belief in spite of setbacks
III. Why are mental skills neglected?
a. Lack of knowledge
b. Misunderstandings about Psychological skills
i. Believe psychological skills are innate and can’t be taught
c. Lack of time
IV. Myths about PST
a. PST is for “problem” athletes only
b. PST is for elite training only
c. PST provides “quick fix” solutions
i. Takes time and practice to develop
d. PST is NOT useful
Psychological skills can be learned, but they must be practiced over time and integrated into a person’s daily
training regimen.
V. Successful vs. Less Successful Athletes
a. Higher confidence
b. Better at regulating arousal
c. Better communication
d. More positive thoughts and images
e. More determination or commitment
VI. Three phases of PST programs
a. Education phase- awareness of psych skills
b. Acquisition phase- strategies & techniques
c. Practice phase- automate, integrate, simulate
d. Evaluation phase
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