Civil Rights (part 2)
1. What is the difference between de jure segregation vs. de facto segregation?
a. De Jure Segregation: (based on law) had been abolished
b. De Facto Segregation: occurs because of past social and economic
conditions and residential patters.
2. What did the 1957 Civil rightsAct concern? Primarily a voting rights bill was
the first civil rights legislation passed by Congress in the United States since
Reconstruction following theAmerican Civil War.
a. “This modest law, allowedAfricanAmericans who felt their right to vote
had been denied because of race to sue their state in federal court.”
3. What is busing and is it still enforced today?
4. Why was the civil rights act of the 60s needed? (Since we already have the
5. What did the Civil RightsAct of 1964 do?
a. Forbade discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender and
b. Passed after a 57 day filibuster/reading names from the phonebook
6. What is the difference between Title 2, Title 6, and Title 7 of the 1964 civil
a. Title 2: overturned the Jim Crow Laws - segregation in public
i. Hotels, Stores, and restaurants that received goods, customers,
products from other states under commerce clause
b. Title 6:
c. Title 7: banned discrimination in employment
i. Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
7. How has Title 7 been extended? To prohibit sexual harassment and hostile-
8. What did the Voting RightsAct of 1965 do? Made it illegal to interfere with
anyone’s right to vote in any election held in this country. Some Southern
9. What were the six problems discussed about voting today?
a. Allocation of voting stations
b. Placement of voting centers
c. Intimidation at the voting booth
d. Electronic voting rigged (negative votes in one county in Fla)
e. Misleading or confusing ballots
f. Eligibility (vote purging, ex cons)
10. What is the purpose of Title IX?
a. 1972- Congress passed the educational amendments
b. Prohibits discrimination against women in federally-funded education,
including in athletics programs
11. Why is same-sex marriage considered a civil rights issue?
Congress (Chapter 6: 239-248)
1. When is Election Day? 1 Tuesday of November 2. How many congressional districts are there in the US. What is the number of
voting members in congress? Non-voting members?
a. There are 435 districts that correspond to 435 congressional members.
b. Also “one” nonvoting member from DC, Samoa, Guam, Virgin Island,
3. What is a single member district (SMD)? An electoral districts that returns one
officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
4. What does first past the post (FPP) mean?
a. Election that is won by the candidate receiving more votes than any
b. Common, but not universal, feature of electoral systems with single-
member legislative districts, and generally results over time with a two-
5. What does Duverger’s law predict?
6. In terms of census, what is the difference between sampling and counting?
(Which part supports which method?)
a. Sampling: representative sample of a total population
i. Democrats favor- more accurate and produce outcome more
favorable to them
ii. Republicans argue that sampling violates the Const., which
declared that the Federal government is required to conduct an
b. Counting: an actual count
i. Republicans favor
7. What is apportionment? Assigning the number of seats in the House of
Representatives and state legislature or how many state and legislature districts a
state will have.
8. What is reapportionment? Why is this important in terms of money?
a. Reapportionment: the process of adjusting the number of house seats
among the states to reflect population shifts.
9. What are multimember districts (MMD)? The same voters elect more than one
rep to serve multiple districts (at large elections)
10. What is the problem with having unequal district sizes? Some districts were
larger than others. Meaning some people had more calculated power than others.
11. What does the phrase “one person, one vote” mean? Each district should have
approximately the same number of people.
12. What did Colgrove v. Green, (1946) rule? Apportionment was a political issue
so this was an issue for congress and the states and not the courts
13. What did Baker v. Carr (1961) rule? Overturned this decision and ruled that
apportionment was an issue that the courts had jurisdiction over
14. What did Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) rule? Applied “one-person, one vote to
FEDERAL congressional seats.
15. What did Reynolds v. Sims (1964) rule? Applied the “One person one vote” rule
to the states
16. What is Gerrymandering?
a. After reapportionment the district lines within a state has to be redrawn called “redistricting”. State legislative bodies are in charge of redrawing
b. Gerrymandering is drawing district line to favor a particular group (I.E.
political party, ethnic group, etc.
17. What is ethnic/racial gerrymandering and political gerrymandering?
a. Ethnic/Racial Gerrymandering:
b. Political Gerrymandering:
18. What are Majority-Minority districts?
19. In terms of mischief and gerrymandering what are we referring to? Drawing
lines so incumbents of the opposing party are either thrown in the same district
and must oppose each other or are given a district having little in common with
the district in which they were elected from the past.
20. What does compactness refer to?
21. What are three methods in which district maps can be drawn by the states
(or the three differences among the states in drawing maps)?
22. What are the three standards the Supreme Court has imposed to determine
how district lines should be drawn?
23. What is the rule concerning minorities?
Congress as Institution
1. Where does the constitution vest lawmaking authority? Article one of the
constitution vest lawmaking authority in the congress.
2. How has Congress delegated lawmaking authority to the other three
a. President via executive orders/executive agreements. Main tool of Obama.
b. Bureaucracy via rule making
c. Courts via judicial decisions - gun laws
3. What is the purpose of Congress as an institution?
4. What are earmarks? Money set aside by Congress in the federal budget to pay
for projects in the home districts of a member of congress
5. What are three ways to distribute tax money?
6. How long is a Congress?
a. Each congress lasts for a term of 2 years
b. Each term is divided into 2 sessions
7. What Congress are we currently in? We are in the 2nd session of the 113th
congress (Jan3 2013-Jan3 2015)
8. How long can a bill survive in congress? All bills submitted in a congress and
not acted upon are automatically killed once the congress ends (a bill has 2 years
at most to pass)
9. What are the limitations on debate in the House?
10. What is Filibustering?
11. What are the requirements for cloture?
12. What are the new rules concerning ending a filibuster?
13. What are the terms and qualifications of House and Senate members? a. House
i. Term: elected every 2 years
1. Must be a citizen of the U.S. for at least 7 years
2. Both must be a legal resident of the state from where
3. Must be at least 25 years of age
i. Term: elected every 6 years
1. Must be a citizen of the U.S. for at least 9 years
2. Must be a legal resident of the state from where elected
3. Must be at least 30 years of age