[PSY 280] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (23 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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PSY 280
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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NIMH estimates that roughly 26% of Americans experience a diagnosable mental health
disorder in a given year
Based on assumptions/calculations about (e.g. how bad is a year of
moderate depression relative to a year of life lost relative to age of the
patient and age expectancy (.406); takes 4/10s of a year out of your life)
A single number used to capture all of the health costs caused by a disease (or
improved by a treatment initiative)
DALY: disease adjusted life year (years of life lost due to disability)
Mental disorders cause a reduction in DALY greater than cardiovascular disease or even
cancer
Somewhere, stigma is associated with safety
Stigma: mark of disgrace or negative attitudes and beliefs that lead to avoidance of a
particular person
Schizophrenic guy who imagined Tom and Lydia
The story: James asks for a ride in the grocery store
Often makes people avoid seeking treatment
Mental Disorder: Stigma
Humans are evolved to live in groups; many "getting along"
behaviors are therefore adaptive
We are super sensitive to exclusionary behavior because the
consequences could be enormous (starvation, lack of protection
from predators, etc)
"getting ahead" and "getting along"
Achievement, power, and intimacy
Normative social behavior
Cognition and emotion
Experience of self and other
Disorder given to slaves who wanted to run away from slavery
Drapetomania (Dr. Samuel Cartwright, 1851)
Social/Cultural Contect
Explanations for non-normative behavior (Deviance)
"information capable of affecting individuals' behavior that they acquire from other
members of their species through teaching, imitation, and other forms of social
transmission" (Richeson and Boyd)
In Europe, people are spending a lot of time around cows
because they have to keep them close by to be able to milk
them; have different/better resistance to different
viruses/diseases that are from animals
Native Americans are also mostly lactose intolerant, didn't live
around cows, and therefore don't have the same immunities
as Europeans
70ish% of Eastern Asians are lactose intolerant, while only about
20% of people of European descent are lactose intolerant
Guns, Germs, and Steel (Diamond, 1997)
Lactose tolerance/intolerance
Intersection of genetics and culture
Evolutionary and Cultural Perspectives
Cultural/social
Integrative biospsychosocial perspective
Lecture 2: Intro to Psychopathology
Wednesday, January 11, 2017
8:23 AM
PSY 280 Page 1
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Guns, Germs, and Steel (Diamond, 1997)
Massive epidemics among Native Americans because the
Europeans brought along diseases that they had no
immunities to
North America was likely heavily populated prior to the arrival
of Europeans
1491 (Mann, 2002)
More common in Japanese than Westerners
Makes it easier to get anxious
Association with cultural differences between Japanese and
westerners
There is a particular variant of social anxiety where people are
terrified of offending someone else; relatively common in Japan
Contributes to social norms regarding interpersonal behavior
See the next slide for illustration and discussion of between-
group statistical differences
Contributes to the likelihood of developing anxiety problems
5-JTT Serotonin gene variant
Individual/psychological/cognitive
Physiological
Genetic/epigenetic
PSY 280 Page 2
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