Psych Chapter 2 09/26/2013
Chapter 2: Biology of the mind
Biological Psychologythe basic assumption: everything psychological is biological.
Basic Questionwhat is the role of the brain in behavior and thinking?
Phrenologya popular but wrongheaded theory (1800s) that claimed that bumps on the skull could reveal
mental abilities and character traits as specific as the desire to have children.
The goal of contemporary biological psychology is to study the link between biological activity and
Sensory Neuronscarry messages from the body’s tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and
spinal cord for processing.
Motor Neuronscarry messages from the brain and out to the body’s tissues.
Look up picture of neuron and parts of it in book (pg. 5051)Need to know.
When a neural impulse reaches the terminal of an axon, it triggers release of neurotransmitters into the
Neurotransmitters:Acetylcholine enables muscle action, learning, and memoryDopamine influences
movement, learning, attention, and emotioSerotonin affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.
Norepinephrine helps control alertness and arousaGABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) a major
inhibitory neurotransmittGlutamate a major excitatory neurotransmitter, involved in memory. (pg. 54 in
book more in depth).
The Nervous System (pg. 5657)
Peripheral Nervous System the somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles. The
autonomic nervous system controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs.
The sympathetic system expands energy—accelerates heart rate, raises blood pressure, etc.
The parasympathetic system conserves energy—decelerates heart rate, lowers blood pressure, etc.
Central Nervous Systemconsists of brain and spinal cord.
Anterograde Amnesiainability to form new memories.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulationprocedure for inducing temporary “lesions” in which a magnetic field is
passed over a particular brain region.