Chapter 8: Memory 10/08/2013
Memorylearning that has persisted over some period of time.
Memory is the foundation of identity.
To remember any event, we must get the information into our brain (encoding), retain that information
(storage), and later get it back into consciousness (retrieval).
We use automatic processing to encode information such as the sequence of the day’s events, and the
frequency of events such as the number of times we run into a friend. Automatic processing occurs
But for other information, we must use effortful processing. We must consciously attend to and process it to
form durable and accessible memories.
Rehearsal is a form of effortful processing that involves conscious repetition of material. Ebbinghaus, a
pioneer of the study of memory, studied the impact of rehearsal by teaching himself something.
We retain info better if our rehearsal is distributed across time—a phenomenon called the spacing effect.
Encoding info in terms of its meaning (deep processing) leads to better memory than encoding it in terms of
a superficial characteristic (shallow processing).
Mnemonica strategy for improving memory for some material, which makes use of imagery (mental
pictures) or chunking (organizing items into familiar, manageable units).
Iconic memorysensory memory for visual info, which lasts about 200 ms.
Echoic memorysensory memory for auditory memory, lasts about 3 secs.
Working memorythe memory system responsible for holding info in an active, conscious state. Has limited
capacity (about 7 items) and a limited duration (about 20 seconds).
Longterm memorymemory system responsible for permanent storage of info with a theoretically limitless
Flashbulb memoryextremely vivid recollections of surprising events, but even they can be inaccurate.
Longterm potentiationthe p