Psych Chapter 9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 101
Professor
Professor Hambrick
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 9: Thinking and Language 10/15/2013 Thinking Cognition­refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and  communicating. Problem Solving Some problems we solve by trial­and­error, and others by using algorithms. Algorithms­methodical, step by step procedures that guarantee a solution. Often time­consuming. Heuristics­simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are usually  speedier but more error prone. Confirmation Bias­our tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore  contradictory evidence. Fixation­our inability to see a problem from a new perspective, employing a different mental set. Functional Fixedness­our tendency to think of things only in terms of usual  functions. Making Decisions and Forming Judgments The Representativeness Heuristic­judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to  represent, or match, particular prototypes. The Availability Heuristic­estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; that is,  how readily they come to mind. For example, although flying is much safer than driving, many people insist  on driving. Our use of intuitive heuristics (representative and availability) and our eagerness to confirm the beliefs we  already hold (confirmation bias) combine to create overconfidence. Overconfidence­a tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments. This can create  problems, big and small. Belief Perseverance­our tendency to cling to our initial concepts even after the basis on which they were  formed has been discredited.  Framing­the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and  judgments. Language­refers to our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them as we think and  communicate. Language is arbitrary: sounds produced to resemble a word do not reflect the meaning of the  wor
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