Chapter 16: Therapy 12/03/2013
The Psychological Therapies
Psychotherapyinteraction between trained therapist and a person seeking to overcome a psychological
disorder or achieve personal growth.
PsychoanalysisSigmund Freud’s therapeutic approach. Psychoanalytic=Freudian.
Aims and methods of Freudianthrough free association and dream analysis , to uncover repressed
thoughts, memories, and feelings, and bring them into conscious awareness to help patient to take
responsibility for their own growth.
Latent contentsymbolic meaning of a dream, found in dream analysis.
Criticisms of Freudianinterpretations of therapist cannot be proven or disproven; also, psychoanalysis takes
a great deal of time (years) and is expensive.
Humanistic Therapiesemphasize people’s inherent potential for selffulfillment; goal to boost selffulfillment
by helping people grow in selfawareness.
Clientcentered therapya humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses
techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting, empathic environment (a nondirective
Behavior Therapiestherapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
Exposure Therapiesbehavior techniques that treats anxiety by exposing people (in imagination or reality) to
the things they fear and avoid.
The idea of exposure therapyjust as people can habituate to the sound of a passing train in a new
apartment, they can become less anxiously responsive to the things they once feared.
Aversive conditioninga behavioral technique that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted
Token economyan operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting
desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Cognitive Therapiestherapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on
the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and emotional reactions.
Cognitive perspectiveperson’s emotiona