PSY 101 – Spring 2014
Study Guide for Exam 2 (Chapters 5-8)
The purpose of this study guide is to focus your attention on the important concepts in
each section, enabling you to maximize your study time. Below is a list of terms or issues
that were covered in the preceding readings or lectures. When studying these terms, try to
understand the concept completely. Don't just memorize a simple definition of the
words. So, for example, for the term resting potential, make sure that you understand
what it is, how it works, and the role it plays in the nervous system. Also for each brain
region, make sure that you know where it is, its connections (if given) and what its major
functions are. For each person listed, be sure you know how he/she contributed to the
field. Exam questions can come from the text, lecture, and video clips.
Reminder: Exam 2 is Wed. Feb. 26 10:20. Be on time. Bring your ID and pencils.
Chapter 5: States of Consciousness
o refers to our awareness of sensations, thoughts, and other internal processes.
What is thought suppression? Does it work?
o Thought suppression: is the process of deliberately trying to stop
thinking about certain thought.
When does brain activity change relative to a conscious decision to
move a finger?
What are the 4 basic properties of consciousness?
Define subliminal perception. Does it influence behavior?
What are the effects of sleep deprivation?
What is a circadian rhythm?
What role does the suprachiasmatic nucleus play in the sleep/wake
Know the Theories of why we sleep:
o Repair and restoration theory
o The evolutionary or energy-conservation theory.
What are the stages of sleep? How do they differ?
What is REM? What characterizes REM sleep?
What are some perspectives on why we dream? Freud’s theory?
Activation synthesis model? What occurs in the brain during
dreaming? Describe the major sleep disorders: (insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep
What are psychoactive drugs?
o Chemicals influencing consciousness or behavior by altering
the brains chemical system.
Describe the nature of drug dependence.
o Physical dependence: refers to the need to continue taking the drug to
avoid withdrawal symptoms, which often include feelings of discomfort
o Psychological dependence: refers to the need that a user may
psychologically feel for continued use of a drug in order to experience its
effects and relieve withdrawal symptoms
What is drug tolerance? Addiction?
o Drug tolerance: need for increased usage
o Addiction:strong desire to self administer a drug of abuse
Define and identify drugs that fall into the category of depressants, stimulants
and narcotics. What neurotransmitters are involved? How is the synapse
o DEPRESSANTS: reduce CNS activity
They effect the GABA neurotransmitter
Alcohol, tranquilizers, barbiturates, benzos and toxic inhalants.
o NARCOTICS: most are pain relievers
They effect endorphins and cause dopamine release in the nucleus
Heroin, prescription pain killers: oxycontin, hydrocodone,
fentanyl, lortab and vicodin
o STIMULANTS: excites the CNS, heightens alertness and activity levels
Cocaine: (increases production of dopamine), amphetamine,
What is expectancy theory and alcohol myopia?
o Expectancy theory: Your behavior is based on the social situation
o Alcohol myopia: you see things up close but you don’t realize or think
through the consequences of your actions while under the influence
Chapter 6: Memory
o The ability to store or retrieve information over time
What 3 stages are involved in memory?
o Encoding: Visual (picture) stored in short term memory
Acoustic (sound or repetition),
Semantic (meaning) stored in long term memory but
can also store visual and acoustically
o Storage: capacity and duration. The way we store
information affects the way we retrieve it
Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their
The capacity of the long-term memory is thought to
be unlimited and can last a lifetime
Information can only be store for a brief duration in
the short-term memory for up to 30 seconds
o Retrieval: when asked to retrieve something from memory,
the differences between the STM and LTM are clear
Short-term: is stored and retrieved sequentially
• If a group of people are given a list of four
words to remember and then asked what the
fourth word is they must go through the list in
the order they heard it to retrieve the
Long-term: is stored and retrieved by association
• Organizing information can help aid retrieval.
You can organize information in sequences
(alphabetically, size or time).
Compare retention and the levels of processing involved in
elaborative encoding: visual (shallow), rhyming (moderate) and
o Semantic judgment (deep) 90%
o Rhyme judgment (moderate) 60%
o Visual judgment (shallow) 15%
What are elaborative, visual imagery, and organizational
encoding? What brain regions are involved?
o Elaborative: relating new information to knowledge that is
already in memory
Lower left part of the FRONTAL lobe and in the
inner part of the LEFT TEMPORAL. o Visual: the process of storing new information by converting
it into mental pictures
Encoding activates visual processing regions in the
o Organizational: “grouping” or “categorizing” by noticing the
relationships among a series of items.
LEFT FRONTAL LOBE
What is survival encoding and how is recall affected?
o Survival encoding: enhanced memory for information
related to survival
Define: sensory store, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
o Contrast two forms of sensory memory.
Sensory memory: storage that holds sensory
information for a few seconds or less
• Ionic memory: momentary photographic
• Echoic memory: momentary auditory memory
o Describe the duration and working capacity of short-term
memory and long-term memory.
• Duration: a few seconds to a minute
• Capacity: in between 5 to 9 items
• Duration: hours, days, weeks or years
• Capacity: unknown/ unlimited
o What is working memory / short-term memory? Describe
the use of chunking?
Chunking can help increase the capacity of the short-
Working memory: active maintenance of information
in short term memory
What neural changes occurred as a result of conditioning in
Aplysia? What is LTP? What occurs at the synapse in LTP? o LTP: long-term potential is a long-lasting enhancement in
signal transmission between two neurons that results from
stimulating them synchronously. The ability of chemical
synapses to change their strength
o Aplysia: is a mullosk that we use to test memory
Describe the differences between implicit memory (procedural and
priming) and explicit memory (episodic and semantic). What are
brain areas are involved in each type of memory?
o Implicit: without conscious recall
Procedural memory motor and cognitive skills
Priming enhanced identification of objects or words
o Explicit: with conscious recall
Semantic memory: facts and general knowledge
Episodic memory: personally experienced events
Amnesia: anterograde (patient H.M.) and retrograde. What was
H.M.’s contribution to the study of memory? Role of
hippocampus and medial temporal lobe.
o The hippocampus and surrounding areas of the temporal
lobes removed to control seizures. This made him
experience massive anterograde amnesia- unable to store
any new memories
What is a retrieval cue? Encoding specificity principle? State
o Encoding specificity principle: associations formed at the
time of learning are the most effective retrieval
o State dependent retrieval: the tendency for information to be
better recalled when the person is in the same state during
encoding and retrieval.
Example: if you drink coffee while studying you
should drink coffee as you take the test.
Contrast proactive and retroactive interference. o Proactive interference: retaining old material makes it hard
to retain new material
o Retroactive interference: when learning new material makes
it hard to retain