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PSY 101

PSY 101 – Spring 2014 Study Guide for Exam 2 (Chapters 5-8) The purpose of this study guide is to focus your attention on the important concepts in each section, enabling you to maximize your study time. Below is a list of terms or issues that were covered in the preceding readings or lectures. When studying these terms, try to understand the concept completely. Don't just memorize a simple definition of the words. So, for example, for the term resting potential, make sure that you understand what it is, how it works, and the role it plays in the nervous system. Also for each brain region, make sure that you know where it is, its connections (if given) and what its major functions are. For each person listed, be sure you know how he/she contributed to the field. Exam questions can come from the text, lecture, and video clips. Reminder: Exam 2 is Wed. Feb. 26 10:20. Be on time. Bring your ID and pencils. Chapter 5: States of Consciousness  Describe consciousness. o refers to our awareness of sensations, thoughts, and other internal processes.  What is thought suppression? Does it work? o Thought suppression: is the process of deliberately trying to stop thinking about certain thought.  When does brain activity change relative to a conscious decision to move a finger? o  What are the 4 basic properties of consciousness?  Define subliminal perception. Does it influence behavior?  What are the effects of sleep deprivation?  What is a circadian rhythm?  What role does the suprachiasmatic nucleus play in the sleep/wake cycle?  Know the Theories of why we sleep: o Repair and restoration theory o The evolutionary or energy-conservation theory.  What are the stages of sleep? How do they differ?  What is REM? What characterizes REM sleep?  What are some perspectives on why we dream? Freud’s theory? Activation synthesis model? What occurs in the brain during dreaming?  Describe the major sleep disorders: (insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea)  What are psychoactive drugs? o Chemicals influencing consciousness or behavior by altering the brains chemical system.  Describe the nature of drug dependence. o Physical dependence: refers to the need to continue taking the drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms, which often include feelings of discomfort and illness o Psychological dependence: refers to the need that a user may psychologically feel for continued use of a drug in order to experience its effects and relieve withdrawal symptoms  What is drug tolerance? Addiction? o Drug tolerance: need for increased usage o Addiction:strong desire to self administer a drug of abuse  Define and identify drugs that fall into the category of depressants, stimulants and narcotics. What neurotransmitters are involved? How is the synapse affected? o DEPRESSANTS: reduce CNS activity  They effect the GABA neurotransmitter  Alcohol, tranquilizers, barbiturates, benzos and toxic inhalants. o NARCOTICS: most are pain relievers  They effect endorphins and cause dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens  Heroin, prescription pain killers: oxycontin, hydrocodone, fentanyl, lortab and vicodin o STIMULANTS: excites the CNS, heightens alertness and activity levels  Cocaine: (increases production of dopamine), amphetamine, nicotine, MDMA  What is expectancy theory and alcohol myopia? o Expectancy theory: Your behavior is based on the social situation o Alcohol myopia: you see things up close but you don’t realize or think through the consequences of your actions while under the influence Chapter 6: Memory  Describe memory o The ability to store or retrieve information over time  What 3 stages are involved in memory? o Encoding:  Visual (picture) stored in short term memory  Acoustic (sound or repetition),  Semantic (meaning) stored in long term memory but can also store visual and acoustically o Storage: capacity and duration. The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it  Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory  The capacity of the long-term memory is thought to be unlimited and can last a lifetime  Information can only be store for a brief duration in the short-term memory for up to 30 seconds o Retrieval: when asked to retrieve something from memory, the differences between the STM and LTM are clear  Short-term: is stored and retrieved sequentially • If a group of people are given a list of four words to remember and then asked what the fourth word is they must go through the list in the order they heard it to retrieve the information.  Long-term: is stored and retrieved by association • Organizing information can help aid retrieval. You can organize information in sequences (alphabetically, size or time).  Compare retention and the levels of processing involved in elaborative encoding: visual (shallow), rhyming (moderate) and semantic (deep). o Semantic judgment (deep) 90% o Rhyme judgment (moderate) 60% o Visual judgment (shallow) 15%  What are elaborative, visual imagery, and organizational encoding? What brain regions are involved? o Elaborative: relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory  Lower left part of the FRONTAL lobe and in the inner part of the LEFT TEMPORAL. o Visual: the process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures  Encoding activates visual processing regions in the OCCIPITAL lobe. o Organizational: “grouping” or “categorizing” by noticing the relationships among a series of items.  LEFT FRONTAL LOBE  What is survival encoding and how is recall affected? o Survival encoding: enhanced memory for information related to survival  Define: sensory store, short-term memory, and long-term memory. o Contrast two forms of sensory memory.  Sensory memory: storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less • Ionic memory: momentary photographic memory • Echoic memory: momentary auditory memory o Describe the duration and working capacity of short-term memory and long-term memory.  Short-term: • Duration: a few seconds to a minute • Capacity: in between 5 to 9 items  Long-term: • Duration: hours, days, weeks or years • Capacity: unknown/ unlimited o What is working memory / short-term memory? Describe the use of chunking?  Chunking can help increase the capacity of the short- term memory  Working memory: active maintenance of information in short term memory  What neural changes occurred as a result of conditioning in Aplysia? What is LTP? What occurs at the synapse in LTP? o LTP: long-term potential is a long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons that results from stimulating them synchronously. The ability of chemical synapses to change their strength o Aplysia: is a mullosk that we use to test memory  Describe the differences between implicit memory (procedural and priming) and explicit memory (episodic and semantic). What are brain areas are involved in each type of memory? o Implicit: without conscious recall  Procedural memory motor and cognitive skills  Priming enhanced identification of objects or words o Explicit: with conscious recall  Semantic memory: facts and general knowledge  Episodic memory: personally experienced events  Amnesia: anterograde (patient H.M.) and retrograde. What was H.M.’s contribution to the study of memory? Role of hippocampus and medial temporal lobe. o The hippocampus and surrounding areas of the temporal lobes removed to control seizures. This made him experience massive anterograde amnesia- unable to store any new memories  What is a retrieval cue? Encoding specificity principle? State dependent effects? o Encoding specificity principle: associations formed at the time of learning are the most effective retrieval o State dependent retrieval: the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval.  Example: if you drink coffee while studying you should drink coffee as you take the test. MEMORY FAILURES  Contrast proactive and retroactive interference. o Proactive interference: retaining old material makes it hard to retain new material o Retroactive interference: when learning new material makes it hard to retain
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