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PSY 101
John Weaver

Chapter 6- Sensation and Perception Match the term (a- d) with its definition (#1-4) a. Sensation b. Perception c. Prosopagnosia d. Absolute Threshold 1. Cannot perceive human faces, but they can perceive objects 2. The stimulation of the sensory organs by physical energy from the external world 3. The minimum stimulation necessary to detect physical stimulation half of the time 4. Our interpretation of what we sense based on our experiences, expectations, and surroundings 5. Experiencing sudden pain is to _______________, as recognizing that you are suffering a heart is to __________________. 6. Sensation is the start of ___________________ processing as perception is the start of ____________________ processing. 7. Absolute threshold needs to detect stimuli ______ of the time. a. 10% b. 50% c. 75% d. 40% Physical World Psychological World Light Brightness Sound Weight Sugar 8. Fill in the table above based on psychophysics 9. Children like fries out of a McDonald’s bag more than a regular bag. This is an example of: a. Subliminal b. Perceptual Set c. Perception d. Psychophysics 10. Perceptual set can influence what we: a. Hear b. Taste c. Feel d. See e. All of the above 11. You open your eyes in the morning to see flowers beside your bedside. You then receive light energy, which they change into neutral messages for the brain to process. This is an example of _______________________. Match the term (a- d) with its definition (#12-15) a. Wave Length b. Parallel Processing c. Intensity d. Achromatopsia 12. The brain ability to multitasking; information about color, movement, form, and depth is processed simultaneously by different brain regions 13. The distance between one wave peak to the next, and determines hue (color) 14. The amplitude of the light wave (its height), and determines brightness 15. Acondition where one lacks color vision 16. The color red has ________ wave lengths, while the color purple has ________ wave lengths Match the area (1-5) with the step of how we see (#17-20) 17. Through the process called accommodation 18. The lens focuses the light on the retina 19. The light passes through the pupil- a small adjustable opening surrounded by the iris- a colored muscle that gives you your eye their color and dilates or constricts in response to light intensity 20. The light enters the eye through the cornea- a clear coating that protects the eye Match the term (a- e) with its definition (#12-15) a. Retina b. Rods c. Cones d. Optic Nerve e. Blind Spot f. Fovea 21. The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing receptor rods and cones in addition to layers of other neurons that process visual info 22. Enable color vision and are concentrated in the fovea 23. Enable black-and-white vision and are concentrated in the fovea 24. The retina’s area of central focus Match the area (1-3) with the step of how we hear (#25-27) 25. The resulting pressure changes in the cochlear fluid cause the basilar membrane to ripple, bending the hair cells on the surface. 26. The outer ear funnels sound waves to the eardrum. 27. The bones of the middle ear amplify and relay the vibrations through the oval window into the cochlea. 28. The strength of the wave (i.e. amplitude) determines what aspect of hearing? a. Loudness b. Pitch c. Location 29. The wave’s frequency, and our experience of pitch determine what aspect of hearing? a. Loudness b. Pitch c. Location Match the term (a- c) with its definition (#30-32) a. Skin Sensations b. Kinesthetic c. Vestibular 30. Your sense of the position and movement of your body parts 31. Monitors position and movement of the head 32. Includes pressure, warmth, cold, and pain In terms of pain, match the influence (a- c) with its definition (#33-35) a. Biological b. Psychological c. Socio-Cultural 33. Our perception of pain varies with the social situation and cultural traditions (we tend to perceive more pain when others also seem to be experiencing it) 34. Sensory receptors called nociceptors detect harmful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals 35. Our mental state can influence the degree to which we experience pain 36. You have the ability to pick a hospital room for a loved one who’s in a lot of pain. You should pick a room with… a. Awindow looking out on trees b. Awindow looking at a plain brick wall c. No window d. All of the above are the same 37. Taste buds contain ______________ receptor cells, which differ in terms of which molecules they respond to (sweet-tasting, salty-tasting, etc.) a. 70-95 b. 50-100 c. 100-200 d. 150-175 38. Fill in the following table: The Survival Functions of Basic Tastes Taste Indicates Energy Source Salty Sour Potential Poisons Umami Match the area (1-3) with the step of how we smell (#39-41) a. Step 1 b. Step 2 c. Step 3 39. The receptor cells send messages to the brain’s olfactory bulb, and then onward to higher regions of the brain. 40. Airborne molecules reach receptors at the top of your nose. 41. Sniffing swirls air up to the receptors. 42. Information from taste buds travels to an area not far from where the brain receives ___________________, which interacts with taste Chapter 8- Memory Match the term (a- e) with its definition (#1-5) a. Storage b. Automatic Processing c. Retrieval d. Effortful Processing e. Encoding 1. To get information back into consciousness 2. To get information into our brain 3. To encode information such as the sequence of the day’s events and the frequency of events 4. To retain the information we out into our brain 5. Must consciously attend to and process it to form durable and accessible memories 6. Strange as it is, you have run into your coworker four times today. Your ability to unconsciously keep track of the number of times something happen to you is: a. Spacing Effect b. Explicit Memory c. Automatic Processing d. Effortful Processing 7. Ebbinghaus observed that it is much easier to learn meaningful material than nonsense material. This is the advantage of: a. The “Peg-Word” System b. Spacing Effect c. Deep Processing d. Shallow Processing 8. How do we remember a phone number and even how they are written (organized in units like 734 355 9729) is an example of: a. Chunking b. Spacing c. Mnemonic Device d. BothAand C Match the term (a- c) with its definition (#9-11) a. Mnemonic Device b. Chunking c. Imagery 9. A strategy for improving memory for some material 10. Mental pictures 11. Organizing items into familiar, manageable units 12. “Roy G. Biv”, “HOMES”, and “King Phillip cut open five green snakes” are all examples of: a. Chunking b. Imagery c. Spacing Effect 13. True or False: Along-term memory is limited and perfect. 14. James has to remember a phone number for a short time to dial it on a landline phone. Which memory system is most important? a. Working b. Long-Term c. Iconic d. Echoic 15. Your brother often pretends to listen to what you’re saying, but when you ask him what you said he could only mutter the last couple words. Which memory system is he using? a. Working b. Long-Term c. Iconic d. Echoic Match the memory (a- e) with its definition (#16-20) a. Long Term Memory b. Echoic Memory c. Working Memory d. Flashbulb Memory e. Iconic Memory 16. Sensory memory for auditory information, which lasts about 3 seconds 17. Responsible for permanent storage of information with a theoretically limitless capacity 18. Sensory memory for visual information, which lasts about 200 ms 19. Extremely vivid recollections of surprising events, but even they can be inaccurate 20. Responsible for holding information in an active, conscious state 21. When we are excited or stress, emotion-triggered stress hormones make more ____________ energy to the brain and the ___________ boosts activity in memory-forming areas of the brain. 22. Fill in the chart below 23. The course of forgetting is initially ___________ and ___________ with time. This could be because of decay of the physical memory trace. 24. You learn a friend’s email address at college ([email protected]). Later, a familiar old address interferes when you try to recall the new email address ([email protected]?????). This is an example of: a. Retroactive Interference b. Proactive Interference 25. You learn a password for using bank debit card (my99money), but then can no longer recall the password for using yourATM card. This is an example of: a. Retroactive Interference b. Proactive Interference 26. What are some ways to improve your memory? a. Study repeatedly; Make the material meaningful; Test your own knowledge b. Activate retrieval cues; Use mnemonic devices c. Minimize interference; Sleep more d. All of the above Chapter 10- Intelligence 1. Intelligence can be defined as the mental quality that consists of 2. Adam is a smart young man, who scored very high on both the reading and math parts of the SAT. He is an excellent map-reader and his reasoning abilities are fantastic. Which type of knowledge is Adam using? a. Analytical Intelligence b. General Knowledge Factor c. Factor Analysis Match the theory (a- d) with its definition (#3-6) a. Gardner’s Theory b. Multiple Intelligence Theory c. Thurston’s Primary Mental Abilities d. Sternberg’s Triarchic 3. Our intelligence may be broken down into seven factors: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory 4. Abasic intelligence predicts our abilities in varied academic areas 5. Our intelligence is best classified into three areas that predict real world success: analytical, creative, and practical 6. Our abilities are best classified into eight independent intelligences, which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts Match the type of intelligence (a- c) with its definition (#1-4) a. Analytical Intelligence b. Creative Intelligence c. Practical Intelligence 7. Adapting and generating novel ideas 8. Attaining a fit between oneself and their environment, or “street smarts” 9. Intelligence tests 10. _______________________ is often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions a. Analytical Int
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