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Midterm Study Guide 2014

28 Pages

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PSY 244

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▯1 Psychology 244 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 ▯ I. Introduction ▯ 1. What is the basic task of developmental psychology? the scientific study (using scientific methods) of the changes of humans that we undergo over the course of your life GOALS 1. Descriptive and identify the changes and 2. Uncover the processes of these physical changes? — Why do we crawl before we walk? 3. Explain how and why they occur in a certain sequence ▯ 2. What span of time is covered by developmental psychology (note: this isn’t necessarily the time span covered in our class)? Development is a lifelong process. ▯ Sample Question The basic task of developmental psychology is: a. to identify and describe the changes in behavior over time b. to uncover the processes underlying these changes c. to explain how and why they occur (e.g., how and why they occur in a certain order, or sequence, and at certain times rather than at other times) d. all of the above are parts of the basic task ▯ ▯ II. History of the Study of Development A. Ancient Greece and Rome 1. In his treatise, Gynecology, the Greek physician Soranus gave careful instructions for how infants should be swaddled: in soft cloths and strips of fabric from the head "to the very tip of the toes." What was his main reason for this practice? MATURATION - a genetic or biologically determined process of growth that unfolds over a period of time The purpose of this practice was to help “straighten out” the infant. His theory was that babies would grow in the curved fetal position without the swaddling. ARISTOTLE - politics PLATO - the republic SORANUS - gynecolgy PLUTARCH - peri paidon agoges (the education or bringing up of children) ▯2 Psychology 244 Midterm ExaExam Date: March 11e ▯ Sample Question In his treatise, Gynecology, the Greek physician Soranus gave careful instructions for how infants should be swaddled: in soft cloths and strips of fabric from the head "to the very tip of the toes." Soranus's main reason was to guide the infant's growth, to protect it from growing crooked or lame. a. true b. false B. Middle Ages ▯ 2. People in the MiddleAges were interested in and concerned for the health and well-being of infants and children. Were they interested to the same degree in the psychology of infants and children? For example, did they understand that children are psychologically different from adults? If yes, how did they show this? If no, how did they show this? Explain your answer. They were not as interested in psychological differences between children and adults. This was particularly obvious when one looks at the drawings of children/ infants. They were portrayed as miniature adults, even attired in the same manner as their parents. 3. One of the most famous speeches in Shakespeares play, As You Like It, is called The Seven Ages of Man. What do you think Shakespeare was trying to say about psychological development? (Links to videos of the speech can be found in the video version of the syllabus.) Shakespeare was saying that psychological development is progressive, that the mind becomes more complex to a point, then it finally degenerates back to its original state. C. Renaissance ▯ 4. Debates about the relative roles of “nature” and “nurture” in human development date from ancient times, but they were especially prominent during the Renaissance. What do the terms “nature” (or nativism) and “nurture” (or nurturism) mean? What are the basic positions of persons on each side of the debate? Why is the debate today seen as based on a false dichotomy, so that instead of nurture vs. nurture, the term “gene-environment [email protected] is used instead? Nature - the development is based solely on genetics. Human become who they are regardless of their surroundings. Nurture - development is based solely on circumstances one is born into. Stages and times of development depend on treatment, nourishment, etc, rather than genetic disposition. The current thought is that it is not one or the other, but both that give you human development. “Gene Environment interaction” - people have genetic tendencies but their surroundings and circumstances can affect and alter them to a point. ▯3 Psychology 244 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 5. The English philosopher John Locke described the child's mind as a "tabula rasa." He was referring to its initial quality, or state. What did he mean? John Locke - Nuturist “Tabula rasa” - “blank state” He meant that the childs mind is empty with no innate tendencies or qualities to it. It develops according to its environment and on the ideas that are given to it by those around it. 6. In light of Locke’s views about the child’s mind at birth, what do you suppose might have been his positions on such matters as the importance of education and the reasons why schoolchildren are often afraid of school? Locke thought education was crucial to development but that children feared school as a result of the types of punishment consistently doled out. This is consistent with his opinions on the initial state of the child’s mind. He denied fear as a tendency, but as a result of experience. 7. Locke declared,A) When we set before [the young infant=s] eyes a round globe . . . it is certain that the idea thereby implanted on [its] mind is of a flat [email protected] What was he supposing to be the quality of the infant’s first visual impressions? Locke was supposing that infants do not possess the same quality of vision as adults. Their depth perception and distinction between shapes and things in their vision are not fine- tuned as an ‘adults’. Sample Question The Renaissance: a. marks the beginning of an intrinsic interest in human beings and human development. b. was largely a period characterized by a lack of any intrinsic interest in human beings or human development. c. was typified by numerous grossly inaccurate artistic depictions of children's faces and bodies. ▯ ▯4 Psychology 244 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 D. The Role of Charles Darwin ▯ 8. Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection has several major steps, or components. What are they? 1. Organisms reproduce in excess (more than can survive) 2. Children show trait variability. 3. If you consider 1 and 2 together, it is obvious that there will be a struggle for survival to reach reproductive age. 4. Successful traits survive 5. Therefore, only successful traits are passed on (natural selection) 6. No Fundamental differences between man and the higher mammals in their mental facilities 9. Individual members of a species are fundamentally alike, but they also vary from one another in numerous ways. What is the role of variation in Darwin=s theory? The best variations (those most suited to survival and success) are the ones that will continue. Survival and reproduction depend on the variations within a species. 10. What is the role of “adaptiveness,” or “usefulness,” in the theory? The more useful specific traits are, the more likely they are to be continued. The idea is that the most adaptive characteristics will survive, while those that are less adaptive/ useful will disappear. 11. What are some implications of the theory for developmental psychology? Promoted comparative psychology (humans and animals are similar and can be studies as thus) helped put focus on usefulness of traits, pointed out individual differences and increased interest in ontogeny instead of just phylogeny. 12. Darwin himself made observations about development in hisA)Abiographical sketch of a [email protected] Who was the subject of his sketch, and what kind of observations did Darwin make? His son, Doddy, was the subject. Darwin observed Doddy’s emotional developments, and how his reactions and emotions became more complex as he grew. 13. Define the following: ontogeny - development of individual members of a species phylogeny - development of species as a whole ▯ ▯5 Psychology 244 Midterm ExaExam Date: March 11e Sample Question Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection has several major steps, or components. Which of the following is not among them? a. organisms reproduce in excess of the support capacities of environment. b. progeny show trait variability. c. both of the above are correct; that is, both are major components of Darwin's theory. ▯ E. The Role of Granville Stanley Hall ▯ 14. G. Stanley Hall is a major figure in the history of developmental psychology.Among other things, he made major contributions to methodology and to the study of adolescence. Describe these contributions. Promoted non-experimental studies for infants (baby bios, questionnaires, observations), wrote about and studied adolescence, employing the term for popular use for the first . e m i t 15. Other names (and terms) with which you should be familiar: Sigmund Freud Arnold Gesell - physician and pyschologist (Hall’s student) that was a pioneer in the use of cinematography for psychology John B. Watson - performed strength tests on infants by having them hold on to a wire with one or both hands, supporting their own weight for a period of time. Nancy Bayley and the Berkeley (California) Growth Study - best known for initiating and contributing for the Growth Study - but also worked to determine what decides intelligence in humans. Studied infants and children and was able to eventually predict, from young childhood, adult height with less than an inch variability. Berkely Growth Study - followed a large group of individuals from infancy to adulthood, charting growth alongside emotional development (observation by parents) ▯ ▯6 Psychology 244 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 ▯ III. Current Themes, Theoretical Perspectives, Questions, and Issues ▯ A. Themes of Development (debates about what drives development) ▯ 1. The text describes six contrastingAthemes of [email protected]: Biological vs. environmental Genes vs. learned behavior (surrounding affect who a person becomes, or their genetic make up?) Active vs. passive (as they pertain to the child) Do children actively learn, or is it more passive, that they accept what they are given? Continuity vs. discontinuity Is growth a continuous thing or are there stages for growth? Situational influences vs. individual characteristics Do children behave similarly across a variety of situations, or are their actions the result of the current situation they are in? Cultural universals vs. cultural relativism Are there things that cross cultures, and are world-wide characteristics or is everything in term of one’s own culture? Risk and resilience Are some children more “at risk” than others? Do some children simply have a better resilience to rebound an deb successful, despite hard situations? What are the contrasting ideas, or principles, about development to which each theme refers? ▯ 2. In his theory of mental development, what position on the theme of continuity-discontinuity was taken by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget? Discontinuity ▯ Sample Question One of the themes about development is continuity-discontinuity. The continuity view sees development as more-or-less continuous with age, or, at most, as a series of shifts in capacities, skills, and behaviors without any abrupt changes that are qualitatively different from the changes that preceded them. a. true b. false ▯ ▯ ▯7 Psychology 244 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 B. Theoretical Perspectives on Development (corresponding to text, Chpt. 1, pp. 7-17) ▯ 3. The text describes five “theoretical perspectives on human development,” each with several subtypes: Structural-organismic - interaction between biology and environment, discontinuity, individual traits emphasized. Learning - environment, continuity (no stages) high on situational influences Dynamic systems - interactions among all systems (biological, psychosocial, environmental) continuity, high on situation influences Contextual (sociocultural, ecological) - influences between biology and environment, situation and context are important. Ethological and evolutionary - ethological theory - holds that behavior must be viewed and understood as occurring in a particular context and as having adaptive or survival value ; evolutionary theory - critical components of psychological functioning reflect evolutionary changes and are critical to survival of the species. ▯ What are the main points of each perspective? ▯ Sample Question Which of the following theoretical perspectives on human development would emphasize (in addition to the role of the immediate environment) the role of the extended family, the mass media, social welfare services, and the like? a. structural-organismic b. learning c. dynamic systems d. contextual (sociocultural, ecological) e. ethological and evolutionary ▯ ▯ Psychology 244▯8 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 C. Questions, Issues, and Perspectives ▯ 4. Define, or explain, the following terms or principles: ▯ critical period (also called sensitive period) - idea that there are certain skills that must be practiced before one reaches a certain age if one desires to master or even acquire the skill. Readiness to learn - period of development during which person is theoretically more adapted to learning a certain skill. multiplicity of influences on development (refer to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model) - different combinations of influences can affect development differently (overall influence of outside factors depends on combinations) ▯ Sample Question The basic assumption behind the concept of a "critical period," as applied, for example, to the acquisition of a particular skill, is that the skill must be practiced before a certain time of life if it is to be mastered or even acquired at all. a. true b. false
 ▯9 Psychology 244 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 ▯ ▯ IV. Research Methods and Design for the Scientific Study of Human Development ▯ 1. The following are methods for studying development. Define them and describe their relative advantages and disadvantages. ▯ observational - simple observation allows children to move unaffected in natural environment. However, observation cannot be constant and observational methods can vary from person to person. correlational - comparing one change to a noter (as in # of times a child watches Sesame Street per week in relation to their test scores). Good - easy to do. Bad- outside factors unaccounted for. self-report (by children and/or parents, other family members, teachers, peers) report from natural environment but observational methods could omit important facts, are different from person to person but does allow for unaltered living for children. experimental - deliberate, controlled manipulation of variables. Pros - somewhat simple and easy to do, good control over variables. Cons - always different from real world scenarios, cannot be used as a “general conclusion.” “natural experiments” (“experiments in nature”) - performing experiments in natural setting, as if they were to occur randomly. Pros not overly controlled, less affect of forced results, more able to generalize. Cons - less control on variables. longitudinal - studying the same people at different periods across the entire lifespan. Pros- consistent, no variable of individual differences. Cons - what if age group is all the same, but this unique to that group/person cross-sectional - comparing groups of people at different ages, evenly spaced out (gets better idea of general population, rather than something that would be specific to a certain age group at a certain time. sequential - combines both longitudinal and cross -sectional methods. ▯ 2. What circumstances would preclude use of the experimental method in the study of human development? Researcher has to obtain informed consent before starting an experiment on a child. Participants must not be harmed. There are review boards that have to approve experiments with children in them. ▯ ▯ ▯10 Psychology 244 Midterm ExExam Date: March 11de 3. Correlation: If the correlation between two variables, X and Y, = + .75, what does that mean? That is, if X increas▯s, what happens to Y? It also increase If the correlation = - .75, what does that mean? When X increase, Y decreases If the correlation = .00, what does that mean? Y is constant There is no positive or negative correlation between the variables. 4. Why is it important to recognize the multiplicity of influences on development? What do you 1-3?to be the main message of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model as illustrated in Figure There is a lot in the environment that can affect a child. You also have to look at how each different system interrelates to not only the child but the other systems. 5. Why is it important for a sample to be representative of the population from which it is drawn? If the sample does not represent the population, then any conclusions drawn from the sample cannot be applied to the whole. There would be no validity in the experiment and the conclusion wouldn't be accepted once it was peer reviewed. important to consider? Would your choice depend on the question being studied? Give an example. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯11 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 ▯ V. Conception, Prenatal Development, Prenatal Influences, Birth, Genetics ▯ A. Heredity and the Environment ▯ 1. Define the following terms: ▯ mitosis - process of a cell division, in which the cell first copies its DNA. meiosis - germ cell division (no DNA copying, simple splitting of DNA) double helix - homologous chromosomes spun together in shape crossing-over - equivalent parts of DNA switch places randomly in the double helix fertilization - sperm + ovum phenotype - visible expression of a persons particular physical and behavioral characteristics (genes + environment) genotype - particular set of genes a person inherits from the parents canalization - genetic restriction of a phenotype to a small number of developmental outcomes (environment plays a small role in outcomes) ▯ Sample Question The process of ________, which occurs during ________, refers to the exchange of genetic material between pairs of chromosomes. a. mitosis; reproduction b. double helixing; mitosis c. crossing-over; meiosis e. crossing-over; fertilization ▯ ▯ B. Conception and Prenatal Development ▯ 2. Can material be interchanged between mother and fetus? If so, how and where? Yes, the semi-permeable membrane in the placenta allows blood flow between the mother and fetus. 3. When can it be said that the environment first begins to influence development? Upon conception (mother immediately has affect on development) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯12 Psychology 244 Midterm Examination Study Guide Exam Date: March 11 4. Define the following terms: ▯ zygote - egg + sperm united ovum - female germ cell/egg embryo - developing organism between 2nd and 8th week of gestation fetus - third month of gestation to delivery age of viability - ago of 22-26 weeks from conception when the fetus is able to survive if born prematurely ▯ 5. Define the following terms: ▯ parity - number of children a woman already has primipara - woman who has only one child/ is pregnant for the first time multipara - woman who has had multiple children. ▯ Sample Question Interchange of material between mother and fetus takes place through the ________. a. umbilical cord b. placenta c. exchange of blood d. a and c e. a and b ▯ C. Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques and Teratogenes ▯ 6. Define the following terms: ▯ teratogene - an environmental agent that may cause development in a growing human organism amniocentesis - technique for sampling and assessing fetal cells for indications of any abnormalities in the fetus chorionic villus biopsy - assessing cells in the fetus drawn from chorionic cillii (surrounds amniotic sac) ▯ 7. What is the most effective way to evaluate the potential teratogenic effect of new drugs prescribed for pregnant women? Check for side effects in the mother ▯13 Psychology 244 Midterm ExamExam Date: March 11 8. Could the mothers emotional state during pregnancy affect her fetus? If so, by what means? Yes, metabolic/biochemical changes would then affect fetus by causing more complications with pregnancy. Infants are more active in the utero, are more likely to develop depression, behavioral difficulties. 9. How might the mothers age and parity affect the development of her fetus? Mother outside range of 15-35 tend to have more problems during pregnancy. More miscarriages, chromosomal abnormalities 10. What are some of the short-term effects of obstetric medications (especially general anesthesia) on the infant? Less responsive, less smiling, more irritability, depression, problems with motor organization, disruptions in feeding for the first few days after birth. 11. What are some of the effects of the mother=s use of nicotine and alcohol during pregnancy on her infant? Smaller birth weight, increased risk of SIDS, fetal alcohol syndrome, mental retardation, decreased intelligence. 
 ▯ Sample Question The most effective way to evaluate the potential teratogenic effect of new drugs prescribed for pregnant women is to look for side effects in the mother. a. true b. false ▯ 12. What are the three auxiliary structures that develop during the period of the embryo? Placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac ▯ 13. In virtually every language, the term [email protected] can be translated as some variant of the termsAenvy,@Awish,@Alonging,@ or “mother’s mark.” Does this suggest anything to you about what people in the past thought might be the causes of birthmarks? This suggests that it was originally thought that birthmarks were indications of things in the mothers life, such as her hopes and dreams for her infant, or for herself. It suggests belief in a strong connection between mother and the fetus. ▯14 Psychology 244 Midterm ExaExam Date: March 11e D. Birth Process ▯ 14. Childbirth is conventionally divided into three stages. What are they? 1. Regular uterine contractions until cervix is fully dilated. 2. Infant through birth canal and is delivered. 3. Uterus expels placenta 15. Define the following: ▯ ve
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