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Biological Sciences
BIO_SC 1010
Dr.Bethany Stone

Bio 1010: DNA, Chromosomes and Genes - Oh My! ▯ ▯ I. What is the Structure of DNA • DNA is a Polymer ◦ Chains of nucleotides (monomers) ▪ Nucleotides have 3 Parts: ▪ 1. Phosphate group ▪ 2. Sugar ▪ 3. Base ▪ 4 types of bases: ▪ 1. Adenine (A) ▪ 2. Guanine (G) ▪ 3. Thymine (T) ▪ 4. Cytosine (c) ◦ Nucleotides link by sugar and phosphates (the sugar molecule connects to the phosphate of the other) to form a single strand A ◦ complementary strand forms on the other side. ▪ Complementary means A always binds to T and G to C ◦ Sugar and Phosphates make the "Backbone" ◦ Paired bases make up the "rungs" ◦ Average of 139 million rungs on a human DNA molecule • DNA makes up Chromosomes▯ II. What is a Chromosome? • 1 Long molecule of DNA • DNA twisted around proteins called histones • We have 46 Chromosomes ◦ 23 different types ◦ Two of each type ◦ How do we get two of each type? One from each parent!! ◦ All 46 found in Every single cell in your body ◦ Are chromosomes really X-shaped? ▪ Chromosomes mostly in unraveled form ▪ Only X-Shaped when replicated in cell division ▪ When X-shaped, they actually have TWO DNA molecules per chromosome III. Does a skin cell have the DNA sequence for eye color? • YES! Within a person, the DNA sequence is the same in every cell. • However, DNA sequences between people are different. IV. DNA Fingerprinting • Steps: ◦ Isolate DNA from individuals ◦ Cut DNA with Restriction Enzymes ▪ Restriction Enzymes: ▪ Made By Bacteria ▪ Bind to SPECIFIC DNA sequences Example: Mbo1 "looks for" GATC ▪ Cuts that DNA sequence ◦ Visualize DNA pieces on gel ▪ Gell is a Jello-like matrix with wells molded into one end ▪ Cut DNA is loaded into wells ▪ An electrical current is applied ▪ DNA is negatively charged ▪ DNA moves towards positive end ▪ Shorter DNA fragments move faster ▪ Vizualize the DNA fragment • Uses: ◦ Forensics - Compare DNA from crime scenes to suspect's DNA ◦ Paternity testing - Analyzes DNA fingerprint to identify the parents ◦ Historical Analysis - Finds likely identity/relationships of historical figures ◦ Diagnose inherited diseases - Mutations (that cause genetic diseases) change the restriction enzyme cutting sites. ◦ Pre-implantaton Genetic Diagnosis ▪ Relatively new biotechnology ▪ Tests the genetics of an embryo before it is implanted in the mother. ▪ Uses: ▪ Screen for genetic diseases ▪ Select gender ▪ Select characteristics of babies ▪ Controversi
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