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CHEM 1320 Study Guide - Bromine, Lead

7 Pages
77 Views
Fall 2013

Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1320
Professor
Ganley

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Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements
10/25
Development of the Periodic Table
-Early chemists: chemical properties related to atomic mass
-Newlands: Law of octaves
>Didn’t work past Ca
-Mendeleev (and Meyer): grouped by properties
>D.M. predicted element properties
-Mosely: atomic # (Z)
>Z doesn’t always go with atomic mass
>Sorting by Z makes groups make sense
Electron Configuration
-Core elements
>Inner electrons
>Filled
-Valence electrons: outermost
>Likely to be involved in reactions
>Higher energy
Same valence configuration  similar properties
Periodic Law
Same group=same valence electron configuration
Example:
Group 2:
Be 2,2
Mg2,8,2
Ca 2,2,8,2
Are the following pairs of elements similar in chemical properties?
Examples:
Cl and Br? Yes
1s2 2s2 2p5 and [Ne] 3s2 3p4 No
1s1 2s2 2p2 and [Ne] 3s2 3p2 Yes
P and S No
S and O Yes
-Representative (1A-7A)
>Incomplete s or p
-Transition metals (1B, 3B-8B)
>Incomplete d
>Number=outer e-, except 8B
-2B (no name)
>Full s and d, empty p
-f-block (Lanthanides, Actinides)
>Incomplete f
-Noble gases (8A)
>Full s and p (except He)
Elements in Equations
-Metal: empirical formula
>Sn, Cu, Ag, Nb
-Non-metals: empirical or molecular
>Empirical: C, noble gases
>Molecular: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, P4
>Either: S or S8
-Metalloids: empirical
>Sb, Te, Po
Representative Elements: Cations and Anions
Na [Ne]3s1 makes Na+ [Ne]
Ca [Ar]4s2 makes Ca2+ [Ar]
Al [Ne]32 3p1 makes Al3+ [Ne]

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Description
Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements 10/25 Development of the Periodic Table ­Early chemists: chemical properties related to atomic mass ­Newlands: Law of octaves >Didn’t work past Ca ­Mendeleev  (and Meye: grouped by properties >D.M. predicted element properties ­Mosely: atomic # (Z) >Z doesn’t always go with atomic mass >Sorting by Z makes groups make sense Electron Configuration ­Core elements >Inner electrons >Filled ­Valence electrons: outermost >Likely to be involved in reactions >Higher energy Same valence configuration  ▯similar properties Periodic Law Same group=same valence electron configuration Example:  Group 2:  Be 2,2  Mg2,8,2  Ca 2,2,8,2 Are the following pairs of elements similar in chemical properties? Examples: Cl and Br? Yes  1s  2s  2p and [Ne] 3s  3p  No4 1 2 2 2 2 1s  2s  2p  and [Ne] 3s  3p  Yes P and S No S and O Yes ­Representative (1A­7A) >Incomplete s or p ­Transition metals (1B, 3B­8B) >Incomplete d >Number=outer e, except 8B ­2B (no name) >Full s and d, empty p ­f­block (Lanthanides, Actinides) >Incomplete f ­Noble gases (8A) >Full s and p (except He) Elements in Equations ­Metal: empirical formula >Sn, Cu, Ag, Nb ­Non­metals: empirical or molecular >Empirical: C, noble gases >Molecular: H , N2, O2, F 2 Cl2, Br2, I 2 P2 4 >Either: S or S 8 ­Metalloids: empirical >Sb, Te, Po Representative Elements: Cations and Anions 1 + Na [Ne]3s  makes Na  [Ne] Ca [Ar]4s  makes Ca  [Ar]2+ 2 1 3+ Al [Ne]3  3p  makes Al  [Ne] ^Lose electrons to get a noble­gas configuration 1 ­ 2 H 1s  makes H 1s  or [He] F 1s  2s  2p  makes F 1s  2s  2p  or [Ne] 2 2 4 2­ 2 2  6 O 1s  2s  2p  makes O  1s  2s 2p  or [Ne] N 1s  2s  2p  makes N  1s  2s  2p  or [Ne] ^Gain electrons to get a noble­gas configuration Na , Al , F, O , and N  are all isoelectronic with Ne What atom is isoelectronic with H? He ­ Transition Metals Cations ­Electrons are always removed first from the ns orbital and then  from the (n­1)d orbitals Examples: 2 6 2+ 6 3+ 5 Fe: [Ar]4s  3d  makes Fe : [Ar]3d  or Fe : [Ar] 3d Mn: [Ar]4s  3d  makes Mn : [Ar]3d 5 Effective nuclear charge (Z ef): “positive charge” felt by an outer  electron Z ef=Z­σ 0
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