Chapter 4: Listening Skills
• Why is listening important in public speaking for both the speaker and the audience?
Because if you listen well you'll understand what people tend to react to and if it's a good
reaction or a bad one. Listening well as a speaker really means better news for your
• What are the differences between hearing and listening? Hearing is basically like
information going in one ear and out the other and not really comprehending or caring
about what's going on. Listening is providing attention and desire to try to understand and
be involved in the speech.
• Can you name and explain the two steps of effective listening? Processing what you've
heard by actively thinking about what you've heard and seen in non verbal clues;
retaining what you've heard and being able to recall it correctly.
• What are the six causes of ineffective listening? Unprocessed note taking is not thinking
about what you're writing down, non listening is simply when you don't pay attention,
interruptive listening is when basically the speech is interrupted numerous times, agenda
driven listening is when the speaker focuses solely on the presentation and not when
people have questions, argumentative listening is when audience members only listen to
fuel their own arguments and speakers who feel personally attacked by people in
audience will listen to only part of question and react, nervous listening is when you feel
compelled talk through silences.
• What are the three steps to becoming a better listener? Filter out distractions, focus on
speaker, show that you are listening by verbal and nonverbal clues.
• What are the ways you can maximize your audience’s listening? Anticipate ineffective
listening before speech, consider audience's attention and energy levels, assess your
audience's knowledge and ability, front and back load your main message, use
presentation aids strategically, encourage active listening, tailor you delivery watch out
for argumentative listeners, watch out for defeated listeners, watch out for superficial
• What are the five guidelines for listening when you are in the audience? Take notes,
identify main points, consider speech objectives, support feedback with examples, be
• Can you define, explain, and give examples of the terms on Speak Up’s page 119?
Chapter 7: Researching Your Speech
• Why do you conduct research for a speech? Research helps you learn more about your topic
before you present facts. It helps you gather evidence to support your claims. If the
audience has trouble believing your claims, evidence can help persuade them. When you
provide evidence, it can boost your credibility.
• What are the steps necessary for creating a research plan? Inventory your research needs:
begin deciding your research objectives, the goals you need to accomplish with your
research, and consider your rhetorical purpose. Find the sources you need: they need to
be credible and reliable. Keep track of your sources: maintain full citations as you gather
evidence make sure the source is credible by having title of source, date of publication,
author name and credentials, url.
• How do you select the most credible sources by examining the four characteristics of a
source’s credibility? Examine author's expertise: the possession of knowledge necessary to offer reliable facts or opinions about topic. Examine objectivity: have no bias that
would prevent them from making an impartial judgement on topic. Observational
capacity: person able to witness a situation him or herself will have more credibility than
those who observed it in a different way. Recency: timeliness, new evidence is greater
than old evidence.
• What are the kinds of sources available for conducting library research? Books which are
longer than most other sources and usually written by people with extensive expertise.
Periodicals which appear at regular intervals and are subject to peer review which means
other scholars must look before it's published. General periodical indexes can provide
both summaries and full length texts. Specialized periodical indexes are specific to
subject areas. Newspapers are said to be the first draft of history, very available.
Reference works are compilations of background information on major topic areas and
include dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases. Government documents can be good as long
as they're not used for political objectives.
• How is the Internet best used as a research tool? You can use the internet to access online
databases and accessing news reports that just may not be available in your library.
• What are the steps involved in conducting an interview? Start with friendly easy to answer
questions, stay focused, maintain eye contact, be open to new information, listen
carefully, tape the interview if subject will allow it. Then evaluate your notes.
• How do you present your research in your speech? Document all your sources and provide
citations, cite each source in your speech at the time you present the evidence, paraphrase
responsibly and don't power word.
• Know the terms on Speak Up’s pages 233234.
Chapter 8: Using Supporting Materials for Your Speech
• Why should you use supporting materials in your speech? They build audience interest in
your topic and help the audience understand your ideas. By selecting support materials
that appeal to their interests, they will probably pay more attention to you. By enhancing
understanding, it's more likely they will listen to you and carry on your message.
• What are the six types of supporting materials? Examples (regular, brief, and extended),
definitions (dictionary, expert, etymological, functional), testimony (expert, lay), statistics
(limit them), narratives (no real proof but capture attention, analogies (literal [same
category], figurative [not in same category but have similar characteristic that make help
the audience comprehend]).
• What are the five guidelines for using supporting materials? Choose the most credible
proof, use a variety of supporting materials, appeal to different learning styles, avoid long
lists, consider audience, respect available time.
• Know the terms on Speak Up’s page 261.
Chapter 10: Introductions and Conclusions
• What are the five purposes of a good introduction? Gain audience's attention, signals the
topic and purpose of your speech, conveys the importance of the topic for your audience,
establishes your credibility, and previews main points of your speech.
• How do speakers accomplish each of these purposes? Gain audience's attention by
beginning speech with an attention getter which could be a story or anecdote, offer a
striking or provocative statement, build suspense, let your listener's know you're one of them, use humor, ask a rhetorical question, provide a quote. Signal your thesis, show you
audience what's in it for them, establish your credibility, preview your main points.
• What is the purpose of a good conclusion? Sum up the message you developed in the body
of your speech and leave a memorable impression.
• What are the parts included in a good conclusion (in order)? Transition into conclusion,
summarize main points, finish with memorable clincher (tie clincher to intro).
• Know the terms on Speak Up’s page 319.
Chapter 12: Language and Style
• Why is language and word choice important? Oral language helps build your ethos and if
used correctly can clarify your message and enhance credibility.
• What are the differences between oral and written language? Oral language is adaptive:
you can change it while you are speaking. Oral language is less formal: writers can go
back and change what they wrote so it sounds more fancy. Oral language incorporates
repetition: writers are discouraged to repeat, speakers are encouraged to so their listeners
can remember their points.
• What are the differences between denotative and connotative meaning? Denotative
meaning is the exact, literal meaning of a word. Usually audiences will know what this is
but clarify since there are more than one definition to many words. Connotative meaning
are associations that come to mind when people hear or read a word, so like exploded
could be literally or figuratively.
• Can you give an example to demonstrate the difference? ^^
• What are the four ways you can make your message clear? Use understandable language:
avoid jargon unless your audience definitely knows it. Use concrete words: concrete
words are specific and suggest exactly what you mean. Abstract words are general and
can be confusing and ambiguous. Use words properly: if you use incorrect words, your
credibility can be damaged. Use concise language: avoid verbal clutter or extraneous
words that make it hard for the audience to follow your message.
• What are the five suggestions for expressing your ideas effectively? Repetition,
hypothetical examples, personal anecdotes, vivid language, figurative language.
• Why is it important to choose respectful and unbiased language? Using biased language
can damage your credibility and make the audience think you're judging them. You can
also easily offend someone so it's just best to stay away from it.
• What are the guidelines for choosing respectful and unbiased language? Avoid
stereotypes, use gender neutral references, make appropriate references to ethic groups,
steer clear of unnecessary references to ethnicity, religion, gender, sexuality.
• Know the terms on Speak Up’s page 384.
Chapter 14: Using Audiovisual Aids
• Why should speakers use audiovisual aids? It is said that audiences are more likely to grasp
concepts if they are provided with visual aids and non verbal cues. Presentation aids can
make your speech more interesting, simplify a complex topic, and help audience
members remember your speech.
• What are the types of audiovisual aids? Speaker (explanation in action), assistants
(demonstration), objects (whatever), visual images (save time and clarify), maps (as
much or as little as you want, geographical), photographs and drawings (provide an exact depiction), diagrams (details object in action), graphs (visual relationship), lists, tables,
charts(can help audience understand information), audio and video (demonstration with
video and audio), audio (recordings can enhance presentation about a musician), video
(enhance more than photo).
• What are the reasons for using each type of visual aid? ^^
• What are the aspects of audience analysis that merit special consideration when choosing
audiovisual aids? Demographics: age, gender. Prior exposure: Have they seen or heard
it? What was result? Ineffective?
• What are the guidelines for preparing audiovisual aids? Make sure aids support points,
keep aids simple and clear, rehearse.
• What are the four guidelines for using audiovisual aids during your speech? Make sure
everyone can see and hear them, control audience interaction with aids, maintain eye
contact, remember purpose of aids.
• Know the terms on Speak Up’s page 453.
Chapter 16: The Nature of A Persuasive Speech
• What are the types of audiences a speaker may encounter and how does a speaker modify
their topic for each type? Audience could be hostile, neutral, or sympathetic. You can't
speak the same to all of them so you will need to use different techniques and appeal to
them differently. For the hostile, why they should change their opinion. For neutral, why
they should care. For sympathetic, what they can do to help. Evaluate latitude of
acceptance which is the range of positions on a given issue that are acceptable to them.