[HIST 1100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (19 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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HIST 1100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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First Contacts Motives and Consequences
Columbus as a case study
o Born around 1450 in Genoa, Italy or in Spain
Humble background?
Society in two levels, aristocracy and everyone else
Today: 3 levels; rich, middle class, poor
o Ambitious to become part of nobility
How to become rich and famous in the 1450s:
Become priest, part of church; gain access to education
Join military, work through ranks
Marry into money
Coluus did’t do a of those; hose a e a, eplorer tied to oere
o Early life at sea
Before sailing to America, he had sailed to Iceland
European Expansion
o The Black Death (plague) and the Hundred Years War (1347-1453) devastated much of
Europe
The Black Death killed a third of the population of Eastern Europe
o Population growth and commodity prices rebounded after c. 1450
Growth continued into 16th century, and the West started pushing borders
Early Expansion
o Canary Islands colonized by Spain in 1402
o Azores colonized by Portugal in 1439
o Cape Verde Islads ere oloized i Coluus’s lifetie
o Lots of people were exploring
15th Century trade and Exploration: Age of Discovery
o Voyages of Zheng He (1371 c.1433-35)
Court eunich and Muslim in early Ming Dynasty
7 voyages to India, Africa, and the Middle East from 1405-1433
1405 fleet (first voyage): 301 ships; 28,000 crewmen
o The whole world was opening up; exploration not isolated to Europe
Coluus’s Theor
o Flat earth? Columbus to prove earth was round?
This is a myth
The Greeks has accurately measured earth’s iruferee in the 3rd
century B.C.
Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor, 742-814
o Holds a sword, conqueror; crown, king; sphere, earth;
conqueror and king of earth
Columbus also underestimated the circumference of the earth significantly
Myth of a flat earth was invented in the 19th century
Fit with belief in progress and the triumph of science over religion
The founding of America represented progress and enlightenment
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Columbus also never sailed around the whole world
o Justifiatios for Coluus’s Voage
Columbus needed money for ships as well as protection from those who would
take what he found
Quest for new islands
Not profitable
Search for new continents
The Atipodes opposite Europe
Ca’t afford to oloize
Religious mission
Take Christianity to the east
Columbus immersed in 15th century millennialism, including retaking
Jerusalem
Claied to hear a elestial oie
o Wrote his Book of Propheies 5 to tell ho his oage
helped religion
Passage to Asia
Sells that sailing west is a short voyage; earth is small
Motivations for Journey to the New World
o Adventurers
Land and resources (gold)
Get rich quick
Conquistadors; Jamestown, Virginia
o Colonists or Loyalists
New home
Plymouth Pilgrims, Massachusetts
o Missionaries
Jesuits in Canada
First settlers of North America
o 15,000 years ago, over land and ice bridges from Asia
Lower sea levels
Indians of North America
o Population of western hemisphere was about 50-75 million in 1492
Uncertainty stems from the mass depopulation after contact
7-10 million north of Mexico
Columbian Exchange: Americas to Europe and Africa:
o Food Crops:
Avocado
Beans (many varieties)
Maize
Peanut, pecan, cashew
Peppers
Pineapple
Potato and sweet
potato
Squash and pumpkin
Tomato
o Animals:
Dog (one breed) Turkey, goose
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