I. Social Psychology
• Attitudes: how one feels about a particular object, event, idea
-Explicit vs implicit attitudes: explicit attitudes are ones you overtly express; implicit
attitudes are ones that effect how you think subconsciously
-Cognitive dissonance: an uncomfortable mental state due to contradiction between 2
attitudes or behavior and an attitude. You can reduce dissonance by changing behavior
or changing attitude, rationalize away the conflict, trivialize discrepancies.
-Festinger experiment: Participants performed an extremely boring task and then
reported to other participants how enjoyable it was. Participants who were paid more
($20) to lie about their experience reported enjoying it less than those paid less ($1) to
-Post-decisional dissonance: An automatic process. Focus on the positive aspects of
chosen option and the negative aspects of the non chosen option.
-Justifying effort: When people put themselves through pain, embarrassment, or
discomfort to join a group, they experience a great deal of dissonance. To resolve it,
they inflate the importance of the group and their commitment to it. This explains why
people take place in hazing.
• Stereotypes: Allow for easy and fast processing of social
information. Overused. Occur automatically.
-Prejudice and discrimination: Prejudice is positive or negative feelings, opinions,
beliefs associated with a stereotype. Discrimination is positive or negative behavior
toward another person based on membership in a group.
-Payne study: White subjects asked to classify pictures of guns and tools. They were
shown either a black or a white face before the picture of the object. Being shown
pictures of black faces made participants identify guns more quickly and mistake tools
-In group vs out group bias: In groups are the groups that we belong to. In group
favoritism is when one is more likely to act positively towards, more likely to forgive and
do favors, and have a positive prejudice towards. Out groups are the groups that which
we don't belong. Out group homogeneity effect is when one tends to view out group
members as less varied than in group members. Robbers Cave experiment: All the
same age boys, same religion, same IQ, homogenous group. 22 split into two groups,
didn't know there was another group. Stage 1 was group identification. The Eagles and
the Rattlers. At the end of the first week, they were notified that there was another group
and each group planned to take down the other. Stage 2 was competition. Basically an
all out war. There was name calling, staking out territories, losing team burned the
winning team's flag and began carrying around bats and rock filled socks just in case.
Stage 3 was reconciliation. The groups were put together but that didn't work. They
were forced to move because the water supply was bad, not really, and they started to
cooperate more. Tajfel study: The subject were 14-15 year olds and they all knew each
other. They were asked to estimate the number of dots flashed in a cluster. They were
told that they were either an over estimator or under estimator, a lie of course. The
subjects were asked how much people should be paid for doing the study and they
gave consistently more money to their in group than the out group.
• Love and the Brain
-Functions and evolutionary origins of romantic love: Animal courtship and attraction in over 100 species. Adaptive behaviors include attachment and bonding, lust,
and romantic love.
-Basic behaviors and circuitry of each of the three systems: The systems are
dissociative. They have separate neural pathways and behavioral repertoires. Romantic
love: Euphoria, focus on individual, distorted reality, obsessive, physiological changes,
transience. There is an activation in the reward circuit, same circuit in addiction. The
neurotransmitters involve increases in dopamine and norepinephrine and decreases in
serotonin. Attachment and bonding: Evolved to motivate mating partners to maintain
affiliation long enough to complete parental duties. Compassionate love. Characteristics
in animals include territory defense, mutual feedings and grooming and separation
anxiety. In humans, calm, comfort, emotional union. Monogamous values increase
density of vasopressin and oxytocin receptors in VTA- trust hormones and 10-
localization with dopamine in nucleus accumbens and caudate. Human studies suggest
vasopressin gene in men associated with monogamy. Lust and sex drive: evolved to
motivate sexual union with any available member of species. Determined by levels of
testosterone which can increase drive but not attachment to partner. Gender differences
in how system is activated.
-Features of faces rated attractive: How people rate attractiveness is generally
consistent among cultures. Symmetry is big factor. Averaged faces are rated more
attractive and averaged faces that include your own are also more attractive.
-Attributional styles in successful and unsuccessful relationships: Attributional
style is how one partner explains the other's actions. Accommodation is overlooking bad
behavior or responding constructively, also called partner enhancing. Unhappy couples
view each other very negatively and attribute good outcomes to situations and bad
outcomes to each other.
II. Psychological Disorders
-How are abnormal behaviors defined: Abnormal behaviors are things that people do
that are not normal. But why they do them, whether they're just creeps or they have a
disorder, is the question.
-Criteria used to judge behavior as abnormal, atypical, disturbing, maladaptive:
Atypical: Statistically rare, deviates from norms. But this is not enough. Not all
statistically rare behaviors are abnormal. Some abnormal behaviors are not rare.
Cultural norms change. Disturbing: Behavior that causes discomfort to the person or
surrounding people and impairs a person's social relationships. Maladaptive: Interferes
with daily functioning and causes person to be self destructive.
-Diagnosis and classification system DSM-IV TR; What is on each axis: Multiaxial
system- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The assessment is
along 5 axes that describe important mental health factors. Observable symptoms. Lists
specific criteria for a particular diagnosis. Axis I are clinical disorders and other
conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia,
gender disorders, sleep disorders, eating disorders). Axis II is mental retardation and
personality disorders (antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality, paranoid
personality). Axis III are general medical conditions that may be relevant to mental
disorders (cancer, obesity, Parkinson's). Axis IV are psychosocial and environmental
problems that might affect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis