Test 3 study guide.doc

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PSYCH 2210

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The Attentive Brain -Hemholtz and visual attention: idea of focusing on one location -Cocktail party effect: focus on salient info in noisy environment can be diverted -Steps in Cognitive process: -attention and perception: attending to and selecting the relevant incoming material from multiple streams -working memory: collecting and organizing the incoming material into a coherent mental representation -long term memory: integrating the incoming material with existing knowledge from short term memory, necessary for deep thought -Cognitive load theory 1.) Info flowing into working memory at any given time 2.) Working memory is constrained -can hold about 3-4 pieces of info -info is stored for 1 sec then lost -stored as conceptual schemas 3.) Extraneous info squeezes out relevant info, preventing entry into working memory -Effects of multitasking on attention- Nass -Questionnaire of how much media used per week, and how much concurrently -HMM has trouble with lots of distractors- target, A-X -LMM and HMM have almost same rates 2-3 back but HMM has more false alarms -HMM is slower to respond to switch trials -Multitasking overloads working memory, increases cognitive load, decreases relevant info going into working memory -Multimedia provides extraneous info like hyperlinks, increased decision demands- hypertext impair reading performance; and results in divided attention; and decreases integration with LTM because less info gets to it and it can't be synthesized with new schemas. -Memory distractions -Poldrack: Multiple memory systems -Declarative: hippocampus and medial temporal lobe -Procedural learning: striatum and cerebellum -Evidence: double dissociation: damage to hippo- impairs declarative. damage to striatum impairs procedural. -Amnesic patients can learn rules but not remember what card they pulled. -Study: single and duel tasks, fMRI recorded, test of declarative knowledge: ST is accurate, DT is slightly off. -Right hippo activity correlated with items learned during ST not DT -Striatum correlated with items learned during DT not ST Sexual Brain -Sexual differentiation: develop male or female body/behavior. Prenatal -Biological sex is anatomical, biological, physiological male or female genetics -Gender identity: what one feels their sex is. Develops around 3 or 4, or 6. Can be diff from bio. -Sexual orientation: enduring feelings towards men/women/both -Chemical communications: -Endocrine: hormones released into bloodstream to selectively act on target tissues -Synaptic: chemical release and diffusion across synapse -Pheromone/Allomone: chemicals released outside body -Sex determination: early developmental effect that determines whether male or female -all fetuses start undetermined -gonads can be testes or ovaries; genital tubercle can become male or female structure; wolffian form male, mullerian form female. -Male process -SRY gene -testes: develop from gonads cause by SRY -testosterone: produced by testes directs most of sexual differentiation -masculinization: testosterone promotes wolffian system -defeminization: antimullerian hormone regression of mullerian system -5alpha reductase: enzyme that converts testosterone into the more powerful dihydrotestosterone (necessary for formation of external genitalia) -Female process -SRY gene not present -ovaries develop from gonad -Wolffian system atrophies since no testosterone -Mullerian system develops since no anti mullerian -Clinical cases -Congenital adrenal hyperplasia -adrenal glands produce excessive hormones. -XX fetus exposed to androgens before birth -masculinization of phenotype, possible intersex appearance -no testes present, ovaries are normal, despite external genitalia -Androgen insensitivity syndrome
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