Test 2 study guide.doc

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University of Missouri - Columbia
PSYCH 2210

Exam 2 • Intracranial recordings: record electrical activity • EEG: electroencephalograph. Non invasive. Measures summed up potentials from millions of neurons. • ERP: measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. • Advantages and disadvantages of ERP/EEG vs intracranial: ⁃ Cons: affected by skull, temporal resolution can be distorted. ⁃ Pros: detect deep dipoles, easily available, cheap • MEG: recording changes in magnetic fields given off by active neurons. ⁃ Pros: not affected by skull, not distorted temp res, good spacial res ⁃ Cons: poor detection of deep dipoles, expensive, limited • Pastalkova and Buzsaki experiment ⁃ simultaneous recording from hundreds of rat hippocampal cells as rats went through maze, trained to alternate between left and right arms, spent 20 sec on wheel between runs, neuronal activity during delay period predicts choice ⁃ if rats made mistake, preceding firing sequence predicted mistake ⁃ sequences resemble activity seen as rat actually runs through maze, likely to represent the brain's internal mechanism for planning what it has to do • Fried, et al experiment ⁃ intracranial recording from hundreds of neurons in and around the hippocampus of 13 human patients w/ epilepsy ⁃ first watch clips (animals, landmarks) which neurons show preferential response, second free recall of clips (think about clips and call them out loud) which activity in neuron happens before they speak. ⁃ Conscious recall linked to specific neuron- each neuron fires before speaking- provides direct link between reactivation of hippocampal neurons and recall past experience • Thought control ⁃ neurons in primary cortex are recorded while animal presses lever ⁃ population vectors identified movement ⁃ info from cells in brain used to operate arm then you think about it and it happens • Brain reading • CT scans ⁃ x rays provide images based on tissue density • MRI ⁃ when external magnetic field is applied, elements become aligned and can be perturbed by intro of radio waves ⁃ measures magnetic fields generated by atoms as they spin ⁃ density of hydrogen in white and gray matter is different so you can detect things better • MRI over CT ⁃ don't use radiation or ionization, better spacial res, better discrimination of white over gray matter, adapted for fMRI use • PET ⁃ gives images of brain activity ⁃ uses radioactive glucose or chemicals injected into blood stream and maps their destination by radioactive emissions ⁃ identifies which brain regions contribute to functions • fMRI ⁃ detects small changes in brain metabolism such as O2 use ⁃ BOLD: blood oxygen level dependent can show networks of brain structures collaborate • Brain is active? ⁃ one compares relative diff in brain activity between two or more conditions ⁃ involves baseline condition ⁃ region is active if it shows a greater response to one condition v another ⁃ imp. comp is chosen carefully • Problem with brain imaging and design and analysis ⁃ correlational, not causal ⁃ small sample size ⁃ average across subjects • BOLD reflects ⁃ action potentials: output ⁃ IPSP/EPSP: input ⁃ some studies suggest BOLD reflects glial activity • Lesions ⁃ inactivation of specified brain region using sterotaxic surgery to target a brain lesion • Ventromedial hypothalamus can establish causal links • TMS ⁃ virtual lesion: disrupt ongoing brain activity ⁃ app of coil with current to scalp ⁃ rapid change in current creates magnetic field which makes neurons fire ⁃ can adjust current level to produce virtual lesion/activate brain activity • Intracranial stimulation ⁃ Penfield mapped the brain • Addiction • Brain reward circuit ⁃ mesolimbic pathway: ventral tegmental area to nucleus incumbens ⁃ make and release dopamine • Intracranial self stimulation ⁃ methods: self administered activation of VTA or NI ⁃ reinforcing: starving rats prefer ICSS to food over 80% of time ⁃ link with dopamine: dopamine release measured during first … ⁃ blocking dopamine eliminates ISS as well as naturally motivated behaviors • Drug self admin studies ⁃ animals self admin drugs that produce addiction in humans but not non addicting ones ⁃ drugs that are self admin cause DA release in nucleus incumbens (micro dialysis) ⁃ Requip: drug to treat Parkinson's. DA receptor agonists, binds receptor in RC, in addition to motor pathways ⁃ 17% of patients develop impulsivity, pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, excessive shopping • Emotions • Subjective mental state: experience of emotion • Physiologic changes: sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems • Distinctive behaviors: expressive changes of the muscles of the face and body • Types of emotions ⁃ primary emotions: six basic universal emotional expressions, seen in all cultures, present at birth ⁃ Ekman ethnographic studies identified 6 ⁃ Complex emotions: may be more likely to be regulated by cultural display rules than basic emotions (looking away to signify embarrassment) ⁃ Plutchik: hypothesizes 8 core emotions including embarrassment and contempt • Display rule: when it's appropriate to show what you're feeling • Physiological changes in emotion ⁃ autonomic nervous system ⁃ parasympathetic: rest and digest ⁃ sympathetic: fight or flight • Polygraph measures sympathetic nervous system activation ⁃ respiratory rate, sweatiness, blood pressure, heart rate, target racist applicants ⁃ assumptions: increased activation reflects lying, lairs show activation ⁃ reality: some liars show no nervousness, innocent people can be nervous, people can be unaware of their beliefs, results can be manipulated • Functions of Emotions ⁃ Evolutionary adaptations: communication, coordination of behavior ⁃ Darwin: Emotions across species ⁃ Expressions linked to specific muscles • Theories of Emotion ⁃ James Lang ⁃ physical changes in a situation leads to that person to feel an emotion ⁃ we perceive specific patterns of bodily responses, and as a result of that perception we feel emotion ⁃ Diff emotions have diff patterns of physiological activation ⁃ more intense arousal more intense emotion ⁃ Ax studies: connecting subjects to polygraph, person insulted subject, diff physiological responses ⁃ facial feedback: if you mold your face to mimic an emotion you activate that emotion (people holding pencil between nose mouth, people smiling more intense) ⁃ Cannon Bard ⁃ mind and body experience emotions differently ⁃ stimulus activate emotion and physical reaction independently ⁃ not much evidence ⁃ Schacter-Singer ⁃ Two factor theory of emotion: a situation evokes some nonspecific physio
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