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University of Missouri - Columbia
PSYCH 2410
van Marle

vanMarle Outline - Exam 1 NOTE** THIS IS A JUST A GUIDE. A TERM OR CONCEPT’S APPEARANCE ON THIS OUTLINE DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN IT WILL APPEAR ON THE EXAM! ALSO… IF IT IS NOT ON THIS OUTLINE, IT WILL NOT BE ON THE EXAM. General Tips • You need to understand the phenomena that we have discussed, but you don’t need to know details like exactly how old the kids were, who did the study, etc. Instead, focus on understanding why the study was done, how it was done (i.e., habituation, violation of expectancy, how many groups tested, etc.), and what the results are. • Focus on those things in the text that were discussed in lecture. • Know how to define and identify various phenomena (e.g., centration, A-not-B error, guided participation, etc.) • NOTE that the quiz questions and participation questions are fair game for the exam. Chapter 1 - Introduction, History, Themes, and Methods Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Locke, Watson – know their basic view (e.g., did they believe nature or nurture was more important) 1. Plato – Children are born with innate knowledge a. Believed long-term welfare of society depended on the proper raising of children 2. Aristotle – Knowledge comes from experience a. Believed long-term welfare of society depended on the proper raising of children 3. John Locke – viewed children as a “tabula rasa” or a blank slate a. Development largely reflects the nurture provided by parents and society b. Believed parents must discipline children before giving them freedom 4. Rousseau – believed children should be given maximum freedom from beginning a. Believed children should not be given any learning until 12 5. Watson – Nurture a. Behaviorism – development is determined by environmental factors, especially rewards and punishments that follow particular events The Scientific Method 1. All beliefs, no matter how probable they seem and no matter how many people share them, may be wrong. 2. Hypothesis – educated guess, rather than a truth 3. Use of the scientific method involves four steps a. Choosing a question to be answered b. Formulating a hypothesis regarding the question c. Developing a method for testing the hypothesis d. Using the data yielded by the method to draw a conclusion regarding the hypothesis Reliability (Inter-rater; Test-Retest) – know what they mean, how to Identify an instance of each • Reliability – the degree to which independent measurements of a behavior under study are consistent • Interrater reliability – indicates how much agreement there is in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior o Some can be qualitative – raters classify a baby’s attachment to mom “secure” or “insecure” o Some can be quantitative – raters score on a scale of 1-10 how upset babies become when they are presented with an unfamiliar noisy toy o Interrater reliability is attained when the raters’ observations are in close agreement • Test-retest reliability – attained when measures of a child’s performance on the same test, administered under the same conditions, are similar on two or more occasions o If children were given vocab tests one week apart, those who scored highest on first should also score highest on second Validity (Internal; External) – know what they mean, how to identify an instance of each • Validity – the degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure • Internal – whether effects observed within experiments can be attributed with confidence to the conditions that the researcher is testing o If you give depressed teens a drug for psychotherapy and three months later they are no longer depressed you can’t say that the drug helped because of the passage of time. This is internal validity • External – the ability to generalize research findings beyond the particulars of the research in question o The goal is to not just apply to the children in the actual study, it is to make it more generalized so that a reference can be made for all children o Need more than one test, and also need subjects with varying backgrounds, using different methods for external validity Experimental Designs (how to identify method, Pros and Cons of each method) • Experimental design – if children exposed to variable react different than those not given variable, then the differences in behavior must have come from differences in the experience • Random Assignment – assigning the participants to one experimental group or another according to chance – by flipping a coin, for example – so that the groups are comparable at the outset o Typically 20 or more o Need to make sure the groups are similar Experimental control – the ability of the researcher to determine the specific experiences that children in each group encounter during the study o experimental group – given stimulus (independent variable) o control – not given stimulus Observation (naturalistic, structured) • naturalistic – viewing subjects in their natural environment o limitations – history of different subjects important, also important behaviors occur only occasionally • structured – researchers design situation that will elicit behavior relevant to a hypothesis and then observe how different children behave in the situation, they then relate the observed behaviors to characteristics of the child, such as age, gender, or personality, and to the child’s behavior in other situation that are also observed o benefits – ensure that all the children being studied encounter identical situations o limitations – does not provide as extensive info about individual children’s subjective experience as do interviews, nor can it provide the open ended data that naturalistic observation can Experimental (longitudinal, cross-sectional, microgenetic) • Cross-sectional – compares children of different ages on a given behavior, ability, or characteristic, with all the children being studied at roughly the same time o Useful for revealing similarities and differences between older and younger children o They do not yield info about the stability of individual differences over time or about the patterns of change shown by individual children. This is where longitudinal is valuable • Longitudinal – following a group of children over a substantial period of time (two or more years) and observing changes and continuities in these children’s development at regular intervals during that time o Reasons cross-sectional are more common is the time-consuming effort it takes to track down the same children throughout the years o Children may drop out of the research because they feel they are failing and skew the results o Also the effects of repeated testing come into question with longitudinal • Microgenetic – provide an in-depth depiction of the processes that produce changes o Recruit children who are on the verge of an important devel
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