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BIO 350 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Protein, Messenger Rna, Gene


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO 350
Professor
Matthew Salanga
Study Guide
Final

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BIO 350

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Historical Perspective, Structure, Function of Nucleic Acid
- In most cases DNA “holds” genetic info
Transfer of info
- All living organisms contain DNA, RNA, and protein
o Few exceptions (RNA Viruses)
- sequence information is transferred DNA > RNA > Protein
o central dogma
RNA virus
- RNA > DNA> RNA> polypeptide
Historical Perspective
- 1859
o Charles Darwin published theory of evolution by natural selection
o He believed we inherited every trait and it has a function
“Any variation which is not inherited is unimportant for us.”
- 1866
o Gregor Mendel discovers basic rules of inheritance
o Father of Genetics
- 1871
o Friedrich Miescher discovers “nuclein” (WBC interest)
o “nuclein” obtained from cells extracted from bandages of soldiers wounded in
Crimean War
o Most whole blood samples don’t have nuclein
o WBC (white blood cells) have a ton
- Molecular Biology is essentially the marriage of biochemistry and genetics
- 1879
o Walther Flemming discovers chromosomes
produced a catalogue of aniline dyes, a by-product of coal tar, to stain
cells of salamander embryos
- 1902
o Walter Sutton links chromosomes to inheritance
Worked with grasshoppers
- 1916
o Thomas Hunt Morgan laboratory established that genes reside on chromosomes
What molecule underlies inheritance?
- By early 1900’s the role of chromosomes in inheritance was clear
- Chromosomes are composed of DNA and proteins
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- 1920’s
o Frederick Griffith Bio-Chemist
o Griffith’s Bacterial Transformation
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Did an experiment on mice using the R and S strains of Streptococcus
pneumoniae
S= smooth capsule appearance
R= no capsule rough appearance
Living S > mouse> died
Living R > mouse > lived
Heat killed S > mouse > Lived
Heat killed R > mouse > Died
Heat killed S + Living R > mouse > Died
o Griffith could isolate S-strain from the blood of the dead
rodent
o Postulated something transformed R to S
o “transforming principle”
o 1940’s
Avery, MacLeod & McCarty determined the “Transforming principle” is
DNA
Deductive experiment
o In bacteria, the transforming principle is DNA, but what about other organisms?
o Hershey & Chase
Blender experiment
Used 32P radioisotope to track DNA
Used 35S radioisotope to track Protein
Discovered DNA was the transforming principle of bacteriophages (a virus
that infects bacteria)
o DNA is the transforming principle in a eukaryote
- Composition of DNA
o Deoxyribose + base = nucleoside
o Deoxyribose + base + 5’ phosphate = nucleotide
The 5’ phosphate provides an energy source
o Nitrogenous bases
Purines (adenine & guanine)
double rings
Pyrimidines (Cytosine & Thymine & Uracil)
Single rings
o String of nucleotides = polynucleotide chain
Made by covalent bonds
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