Bio 181 Reading Notes for Exam #1

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Northern Arizona University
Biological Sciences
BIO 181

BIO 181 Reading Notes I. Chapter One: Biology & the Tree of Life A. 1.1 What does it mean to say that something is alive? 1. Organism: a life-form-living entity made up of one or more cells 2. No simple definition of life, but share five fundamental characteristics: a) Energy (1) organisms acquire/use energy (a) plants absorb (b) animals ingest b) Cells (1) organisms made up of cells (2) cells’ membranes regulates passage of materials between spaces c) Information (1) organisms process info called genes (2) maintain homeostasis d) Replication (1) Almost everything an organism does contributes to replicating itself e) Evolution (1) product of evolution B. 1.2 The Cell Theory 1. Theory: an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations that are supported by a wide body of evidence 2. Two theorys; cell theory & theory of evolution by natural selection a) Established two of characteristics of life; organisms are cellular + populations change over time b) cell: a highly organized comparment that is bounded by a thin, flexible structure called a plasma membrane and that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution 3. Where Do Cells Come From? a) scientific theories have two components (1) describes a pattern in the natural world (2) identifies a mechanism or process that is responsible for creating the pattern b) CELL THEORY (1) All organisms are made of cells (2) All cells come from preexisting cells c) Hypothesis: a testable statement to explain a phenomenon or a set of observations d) Prediction: a measurable or observable result that must bee correct if a hypothesis is valid e) Pasteur’s experiment effective b/c there was one difference between two treatments and that difference was the factor being tested C. 1.3 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection BIO 181 Reading Notes 1. What is Evolution? a) Species are rela
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