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Study Guide

GN 301- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 71 pages long!)


Department
Genetics
Course Code
GN 301
Professor
Marian- Elizabeth B.Gardner
Study Guide
Midterm

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NCSU
GN 301
Midterm EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1.1 Intro to Genetics
Thursday, August 17, 2017
10:14 AM
Heredity and environment influence genetics
Heredity: transfer of genes from one generation to the next
Environment: social and cultural conditions
Arrange chromosomes in karyotypes, a chart that displays similar chromosomes
Chromosomes have stripes, which missing pieces can make alert of mutations
Each chromosome has different genes on them
Phenotype: appearance of how the trait as it shows up (physical)
Genotype: forms of genes (letters that describe them)
2 copies of each gene so therefore 2 letters
Alleles: the letters of the genotype
Autosomes: chromosomes found in both sexes
Sex Chromosomes: chromosomes that are found in separate genders
Homunculus: theory that sperm implanted baby in mother (1600s)
How to tell sex of a child:
Amniocentesis
Fluid from child sampled from amniotic membrane
Chorionic callus sampling (CVS)
Villi removed from chorionic membrane and gen. Analyzed
Ultrasound
Twins
o Identical: one sperm and 1 egg join and produce two embryos
o Fraternal: two eggs were released and both so happened to be fertilized
What can affect the phenotype
o Epigenetics
Modification of gene expression and not change of genetic code
Proteins added that can turn genes on/off
Certain chemical compounds added
Histone modification
o Diet, Pollutants, Plastic Surgery
Gene Therapy: insertion of good copies of genes in purpose of correcting the error or treating a
disorder
o Ex: used for Canavan Disease, a degenerative neurological disorder that kills before age 1
Inhibits motor movement
Recessive autosomal disorder
Huntington's Disease
o Neurological disorder
o Dominant autosomal Disease
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50/50 chance of passing it on
o High suicide rate of family members who know person with Huntington's because of stress
or fear
o 15-18 year death
o Inhibit motor skills, emotional instability, thinking ability decrease
GINA law prevents discrimination on genetic tests
o Does not necessarily apply to diseases that are already present
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
o Dominant autosomal
o Bone fractures and limited mobility
Cystic Fibrosis
o Recessive autosomal
o Thick mucus in lungs; causes infections and breathing difficulties
o Gene found on Chromosome #7
Genetic Counseling
o Helps individual come to terms with illness
Understand facts
See treatment options
o Helps family cope and take appropriate measures to help individual
o Talk about ethical and religious issues associated with it
o Non-directive
In-vitro fertilization
o Suppress the menstrual cycle
o Follicle Stimulating Hormone given to produce lots of eggs
o Retrieve eggs
o Egg and Sperm placed together so they fertilize or ICSI directly injected
o Catheter inserts embryo into body
o Ideal for women who have tried 1 cycles of AI, low sperm count, fallopian tubes blocked
o Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: 8 cell Blastocyst stage
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